Class Notes (836,219)
Canada (509,690)
Psychology (6,258)
Psychology 1000 (2,472)

Chapter 9B.docx

5 Pages
Unlock Document

Psychology 1000
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog

Chapter 9B (Refer to notes for part A) THINKING •Propositional thought – EXPRESSES A STATEMENT or proposition (words or sentences you hear in your mind) • Imaginal thought – images we can see, hear or feel in our mind. • Motoric thought – mental representations of motor movements • Concepts – basic units of semantic memory e.g., categories like “sciences” or “arts” • Prototypes – most typical or familiar of a class or category. e.g., which is most typical of a “car”? a sports car, an SUV or a minivan REASONING & PROBLEM-SOLVING DEDUCTIVE REASONING - Top down reasoning – from general principles to a conclusion about a specific cse - If x, then y. Example: If all birds lay eggs, if a penguin is a bird Then a penguin lays eggs.  Formal mathematics and logic INDUCTIVE REASONING - bottom up processing - from specific facts to a general principle - laws and theories are developed in this manner * Less certainty about conclusions. EFFECTIVE PROBLEM-SOLVING Steps in the Process • Understand or frame the problem • generate some potential solutions •Test the solutions • Evaluate the results Greeno (1978) – 3 basic classes of problems 1. Problems of Arrangement •Example: Anagrams •Using the letters in the following phrase list as many different words as you can think of: Psychology class 2. Problems of inducing structure The matchstick problem. Move 2 matches to form 4 equal squares. 3. PROBLEMS OF TRANSFORMATION EFFECTIVE PROBLEM-SOLVING •Well defined vs ill defined problems •Barriers to effective problem solving: • Irrelevant information • Functional fixedness • Unnecessary constraints • Mental set Problem-Solving Schema: mental blueprints (step by step procedures) to solve specific types of problems. APPROACHES TO PROBLEM-SOLVING Algorithms • simplest strategy • systematic trial and error • guaranteed solution Heuristics • General problem-solving strategies that we apply to certain types of problems. • No guaranteed solution • Forming sub goals • Working backward • Searching for analogies • Changing the representation of the problem COGNITIVE STYLE & PROBLEM-SOLVING •Field dep
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 1000

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.