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Lecture

Chapter 9B.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 1000
Professor
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 9B (Refer to notes for part A) THINKING •Propositional thought – EXPRESSES A STATEMENT or proposition (words or sentences you hear in your mind) • Imaginal thought – images we can see, hear or feel in our mind. • Motoric thought – mental representations of motor movements • Concepts – basic units of semantic memory e.g., categories like “sciences” or “arts” • Prototypes – most typical or familiar of a class or category. e.g., which is most typical of a “car”? a sports car, an SUV or a minivan REASONING & PROBLEM-SOLVING DEDUCTIVE REASONING - Top down reasoning – from general principles to a conclusion about a specific cse - If x, then y. Example: If all birds lay eggs, if a penguin is a bird Then a penguin lays eggs.  Formal mathematics and logic INDUCTIVE REASONING - bottom up processing - from specific facts to a general principle - laws and theories are developed in this manner * Less certainty about conclusions. EFFECTIVE PROBLEM-SOLVING Steps in the Process • Understand or frame the problem • generate some potential solutions •Test the solutions • Evaluate the results Greeno (1978) – 3 basic classes of problems 1. Problems of Arrangement •Example: Anagrams •Using the letters in the following phrase list as many different words as you can think of: Psychology class 2. Problems of inducing structure The matchstick problem. Move 2 matches to form 4 equal squares. 3. PROBLEMS OF TRANSFORMATION EFFECTIVE PROBLEM-SOLVING •Well defined vs ill defined problems •Barriers to effective problem solving: • Irrelevant information • Functional fixedness • Unnecessary constraints • Mental set Problem-Solving Schema: mental blueprints (step by step procedures) to solve specific types of problems. APPROACHES TO PROBLEM-SOLVING Algorithms • simplest strategy • systematic trial and error • guaranteed solution Heuristics • General problem-solving strategies that we apply to certain types of problems. • No guaranteed solution • Forming sub goals • Working backward • Searching for analogies • Changing the representation of the problem COGNITIVE STYLE & PROBLEM-SOLVING •Field dep
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