Class Notes (810,034)
Canada (493,928)
Psychology (6,041)
Psychology 1000 (2,406)

12. Jan 22-Chapter 11-Human Development.docx

7 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Psychology 1000
Lynn Jackson

Chapter 11 –Human Development January 22, 2013  Developmental Psychology –the study of changes in physiology, cognition, and social behaviour over the lifespan Lecture Outline: Development starts in the womb, attachment promotes survival, How do children learn? Piaget’s stages, current developments, and language development WHAT SHAPES A CHILD? Development Starts in the Womb  Zygote –first cell of new life, develops in the womb  Embryo –the name of the developing baby from two weeks to two months  Fetus –the name for the remainder of gestation Physical Development  The basic brain begins to form around week 4 o The cells that will form the cortex are visible by week 7 o Those of the thalamus and hypothalamus by week 10 o Left and right hemispheres are by week 12  Stress of the mother influences the development of the fetus Teratogens  Environmental agents that harm the embryo or fetus  For example, fetal alcohol syndrome Development Starts in the Womb –Lec.  Annie Murphy Paul video –What We Learn Before We’re Born o When does learning begin?  before we’re born while in the womb o Fetal origins –discipline based on that the health and well-being throughout our lives is partially determined in the first 9 months o Things they learn:  Sound of the mother’s voice reaches the fetus more than the other voices other than that they usually hear sound muffled  After women repeatedly read aloud a book while pregnant, the babies remembered the passage when they were born  From the moment of birth, babies cry in the melodic contours of the mother’s language, which may help the babies learn to speak later  By 7 months the taste buds and hearing of babies are fully developed and usually the babies will prefer the foods that the mother eats while pregnant  Fetuses are being taught about what is safe to eat as well as the cultural foods before birth in this way o Much of what a pregnant woman encounters during the 9 months are shared with the fetus o Fetus’ learn about the world they will be born into through the diet and stress level as well as external stimuli o Example: WW2, 500 calories a day, no food at all near the end. The 40,000 fetus’ during this time were effected in ways of childhood mortality, etc., but also more obesity, more diabetes, more heart disease in later lives. The starvation they experienced while fetus’, could be caused because they are preparing themselves by adjusting their metabolism in the womb based on what the mother eats. Bodies were built to survive the world their mothers experienced while children o Example: 9/11 –many of the women who were pregnant at the time. A year after, scientists examined these women. The babies of women who developed PTSD, researchers found babies to have a predisposition to PTSD. o In what ways is prenatal development relevant to psychological development? o Key: --tells us that the adaptive nature of a human change applies similarly to the development of the species as well as the individual development of the fetus  People crave fatty foods because our brains are wired from when our ancestors often were unable to find these foods and thus ate a lot when they did  Same type of pattern seems to occur during pregnancy  This video reinforces that we are not blank slates. Reinforces there is no single nature or nurture as they work together  Very young babies (including fetuses) have a great amount of cognitive processing  Brain Development Promotes Learning  Newborns usually come into the world with their five sense in tact  Rooting reflex –infants instinct to turn and suck things near their mouths (ie. nipples) Myelination and Neuronal Connections  Two aspects of early brain development: o Specific areas within the brain mature and become functional o Regions of the brain learn to communicate with one another through synaptic connections  One important way th brain circuits mature is thorough myelination which begins on the spinal cord during the first trimester  Synaptic Pruning –a process whereby the synaptic connections in the brain that are frequently used are preserved and those that are not are lost Sensitive Learning Periods  Critical Period –biologically determined time periods for the development of the specific skills  Sensitive Periods –biologically determined time periods when specific skills develop most easily Attachment Promotes Survival  Attachment –a strong emotional connection that persists over time and across circumstances  Separation Anxiety –when infants (usually around 8 to 12 months) become very distressed when they cannot see or are separated from their attachment figures  Secure Attachment –attachment style for a majority of infants, who are readily comforted when their caregiver returns after a brief separation; caregivers are more comfortable with emotion usually in children who turn out this way.  Three types of children o Secure –distressed when attachment figure leaves, quickly comforted when attachment figure returns o Avoidant –not distressed when figure leaves, avoids figure when they return o Anxious-Ambivalent –child is inconsolably upset when the attachment figure leaves; child will both seek and reject caring contact  Avoidant Attachment –attachment style in which infants ignore their caregiver when he or she returns after a brief separation; rely less on caregiver for comfort; parents are consistently unresponsive…aren’t naturally inclined to respond to attachment behaviours with attachment responses  Anxious-Ambivalent Attachment –attachment style in which infants become extremely upset when their caregiver leaves but reject caregiver when he or she returns; fearful/anxiety so they stay close to caregiver. Want the attachment bond, but it doesn’t seem to be working to comfort them. Caregiver is inconsistent with how they respond to the babies upset behaviours. Can also happen if child has multiple caregivers. The child learns it is possible to be comforted, but they don’t always get it so they are anxious as to if they will get it. Untrusting.  Disorganized Attachment –attachment style in which infants give mixed responses when their caregiver leaves and then returns from a short absence  Oxytocin is a hormone involved with attachment and bonding and plays a role in maternal tendencies Attachment Promotes Survival –Lec.  Attachment –a strong, intimate, emotional connection between people that persists over time and across circumstances  John Bowlby described infant behaviours that engage adults and adult behaviours that increase attachment; developed attachment theory –eye contact and smiling helps babies develop in a healthy way o The Opium system in the brain develops at a young age, and gets more positively developed if attachment is present  Despite common beliefs that attachment bond was a result of the primary caretaker’s provision of food. Harry Harlow in a series of studies with baby rhesus monkeys, demonstrated that attachment required contact comfort o Harlow’s research was controversial o Primate instinct to cling to something else comforting o Will the baby monkey switch from a cloth mother that fills no biological hunger need to the wire monkey who only gives nourishment, but no warmth –only when forced by hunger o Infants who had a cloth mother were less dysfunctional than others who only had a wire mother, but all were extremely dysfunctional o Never developed mating behaviour and were quite aggressive as they had no contact o With the wire mother –Often engaged in self-abuse, anti-social o Point: when doing animal research, psychologists must consider that monkeys are not humans, therefore it may not be directly applicable to humans  Attachment Style: o Video: The Strange Situation Test  A test developed by Mary Ainsworth  To assess caregiver-infant interactions, leading to the discovery of attachment patterns  Places children in an unfamiliar situation and gauges their distress levels as well as how/when they turn to their caregiver  At f
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 1000

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.