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Chapter IX.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 1000
Professor
Dr T Biggs
Semester
Winter

Description
Thought Language and Intelligence Education - Transfer of skills/knowledge from mind to mind LANGUAGE: - Last 50 000 years brain structure hasn’t changed, cognitive skills have - Language evolved as humans formed social groups NATURE/STRUCTURE: - Symbolic (Displacement = Representation of non present objects through language), Structure, Generative - Psycholinguists study psych properties of language and mechanisms that produce it - Surface Structure = how symbols are arranged, rules, syntax. - Deep structure = meaning of combined symbols, semantics (ambiguous can have 2 ds) - Bottom Up: o Phonemes (units of sound)  English has 46, can go from 15 to 80 but 40-50 common o Morpheme (unit of meaning)  Prefixes,suffixes, count, more than 100 000 morphemes o Words -> Phrases > Sentences ACQUIRING LANGUAGE: - Biological: o Language mastered early without formal training o Common deep structures o Cooing = Infants vocalize entire range 1mo-3mo o Babbling = 6mo native tongue sounds made, lose ability to perceive differences of sound in other languages o Learned easily at sensitive period (infancy – puberty), recovery of language rare if damage after puberty o M/F  Aphasia – disruption of speech  Stroke in male left hemi impairs speech more than females  Females have speech in both hemis - Social Learning: o Operant conditioning by parents reinforcing appropriate language (not really the case, truth reinforced more than syntax) o Telegraphic speech – 2year 2 words noun + verb - Bilingualism: o Children differentiate language by 2 yea o Better cognitive process o Cortical map  Same if learned young LINGUISTICS INFLUENCE ON THINKING: - Liguistic Relativity Hypothesis =Whorf believed language determines thought, but only influences - Asians better because language of numbers easier to understand - Thinking: o Propositional Thought – verbal sentences heard in mind o Imaginal thought – images seen/felt o Motoric though – representations of movement CONCEPTS/PERCEPTIONS: - Thinking occurs as propositions, consist of concepts (many defined by prototypes, elementary method of forming concepts) REASONING: - Deductive = Topdown, syllogisms, conclusion can’t be false if premises are true, forming conclusion - Inductive = bottom up, forming a general principle, correctness based on probability - Researchers move from inductive to if-then deductive process - Distractions, Not knowing when to use methods, belief bias lead to failure - Logic can be correct even if facts are not PROBLEM SOLVING: - Framing, Generating potential solutions, testing, evaluating - Mental set = tendency to stick to solutions that have worked in the past - Problem solving schemas = step by step methods for selecting info/solving certain problems - Some neurons become expert as proficiency in a task occurs - Algorithms = formulas - Heuristics = problem solving strategies o Means end analysis = look at initial/final and make steps to achieve, use of subgoal analysis o Representativeness = how closely something fits prototype and how likely it fits o Availability = decisions based on available info o Confirmatio
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