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Chapter 8 - Memory.docx

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Psychology 1000

Memory  Refers to the processes that allow for the recording and later retrieval of experiences and information Memory as Information Processing  Encoding o Refers to getting information into the system by translating it into a neural code that your brain processes  Storage o Involves retaining information over time o Once in system, information must be filed away and saved  Retrieval o Way to pull information out of storage when we want to use it  Routinely forget and distort information  May ―remember‖ events that never occurred Three Component Model  Memory has three major components o Sensory memory o Short-term/Working memory o Long-term memory  Involve interrelated neural sites Sensory Memory  Holds incoming sensory information just long enough for it to be recognized  Composed of subsystems – sensory registers – initial information processes o Iconic Store  Visual sensory register  Time course – very brief  Difficult/impossible to retain complete information in visual form for more than a fraction of a second o Echoic Store  Auditory sensory register  Last longer than iconic memory  Lasts about two seconds  Partial trace may linger for several more seconds  Ex.  1 – letters are displayed on a screen for 1/20 of a second  2 – screen is blank  3 – length of time varies up to one second   4 – subject reports letters in row indicated by tone Short-Term/Working Memory  Selective attention – small portion of sensory memory enters short-term  Holds information that individual is conscious of at a given time  Consciously processes, codes and ―works on‖ information Memory Codes  Information leaves sensory memory – must be coded in order to be retained in short-term and long-term memory  Can take various forms o Visual Encoding  Mental image o Phonological Encoding  Sound o Semantic Encoding  Focus on meaning of a stimulus o Motor Encoding  Physical actions  Patters of movement  Form of a memory code doesn't always correspond to the form of original stimulus o Ex. reading words (visual stimuli) – forming phonological codes (words are said silently in mind) – forming sematic encoding (meaning of words)  Phonological codes play important role in short-term memory Capacity & Duration  Short-term memory can hold limited amount of information at a time  Depending on the stimulus - people can hold no more than five to nine meaningful items  Chunking o Combining individual items into larger units of meaning o Limit on short-term memory capacity: number of meaningful units o Ex. ifyougrouptogetheryourememberbetter  Short-term memory is limited in duration  Without rehearsal, ―shelf-life‖ of information in short-term memory is short – lasting about 20 seconds  By rehearsing information, can extend its duration in short-term memory indefinitely  Maintenance Rehearsal o Simple repetition of information  Elaborative Rehearsal o Focusing on the meaning of information or relating it to other things we already know o More effective at transferring information into long-term memory Putting Short-Term Memory “To Work”  Items that remain on the short-term loading dock long enough—such as through maintenance rehearsal—eventually get transferred into the long-term library  Short-term memory as working memory o ―Mental workspace‖ that actively and simultaneously processes different types of information and supports other cognitive functions, such as problem solving and planning, and interacts with long-term memory  Theories/Models o Divide working memory into four components o Auditory working memory  Phonological loop  Ex. Repeat a phone number o Visual-Spatial Working Memory  Visuospatial sketchpad  Temporarily store and manipulate images and spatial information  Ex. Forming mental maps of the route to a destination o Episodic Buffer  Provides temporary storage space  Information from long-term memory and from phonological loop and/or visuospatial subsystems can be integrated, manipulated, and made available for conscious awareness  Role in chunk information  Ex. After reading or hearing, ―How much is 87 plus 36?‖  Phonological loop initially maintains the acoustic codes for the sounds of 87 and 36 in working memory  Visuospatial sketchpad also might maintain a mental image of the numbers  Rules for performing addition must be retrieved from long- term memory and temporarily stored in your episodic buffer, where they are integrated (i.e., applied to) information from the phonological and visuospatial subsystems o Central Executive  Control process  Directs the action  Decides how much attention to allocate to mental imagery and auditory rehearsal, calls up information from long-term memory, and integrates the input  Prefrontal cortex involved Long-Term Memory  Library of more durable stored memories – given a call number before it is placed in storage  Call numbers come in various forms o Semantic o Visual o Phonological o Motor  Barring brain damage - capable of forming new long-term memories until death  Storage capacity essentially is unlimited  Once formed, can endure for up to a lifetime  Serial Position Effect o Recall is influenced by a word's position in a series of items o Ex. Things at the end and beginning of the list are easy to remember o Two Components  Primary Effect  Reflecting the superior recall of early words  Cause o First few words enter short-term memory, rehearse and transfer into long-term memory o List gets longer, short-term fills up - too many words to keep repeating before next word  Recency Effect  Representing the superior recall of the most recent words  Cause o Last few words - benefit of not being ―bumped out‖ of short-term memory by any new information  Delay Recall Test o Prevented from rehearsing the last words o Able to wipe out the recency effect—but not the primacy effect—by eliminating the last words from short-term memory Encoding: Entering Information Effortful & Automatic Processing  Effortful Processing o Encoding that is initiated intentionally and requires conscious attention o Ex. rehearsing, making lists, and taking class notes  Automatic Processing o Encoding that occurs without intention and requires minimal attention. o Ex. Incidental information about the diagram's location on the page (that you were not trying to learn) has been transferred o Ex. Information about the frequency, spatial location, sequence, and timing of events Levels of Processing: When Deeper is Better  Structural Encoding o Noticing how the object is structured – looks o Ex. POTATO ―Is the word in capital letters?‖  Phonological Encoding o More effort o Sound out the word to yourself and judging whether it matches the sound of another word o Ex. Horse ―Does the word rhyme with course?‖  Sematic Encoding o Pay attention to what the word means o Ex. Table, ―Does the word fit in the sentence, ‗The man peeled the '?‖  Levels of Processing o Deeper process of information, the better it will be remembered o Semantic Encoding  Deepest processing o Structural Encoding  Shallow processing o Phonemically Encoding  Intermediate processing Exposure & Rehearsal  To learn factual and conceptual information presented in most academic or job settings - need to employ effortful, deep processing  Simple repeated exposure to a stimulus without stopping to think about it represents shallow processing o Ex. Even thousands of shallow exposures to a stimulus do not guarantee long-term retention – remembering individual markings on penny  Maintenance Rehearsal o Involves simple repetition  Ex. Remembering unfamiliar phone numbers o Most useful for keeping information active in short-term memory o May help to transfer some information into long-term memory o Inefficient method for bringing about long-term transfer  Elaborative Rehearsal o Focuses on the meaning of information o Ex. organizing, relating and applying it to individual lives o Involves deeper processing o More effective in transferring information in long-term memory Organization & Imagery  Organization o On a set of stimuli is an way to enhance memory o Scheme can enhance the meaningfulness of information and also serve as a cue that helps to trigger our memory for the information it represents o Ex. Acronyms Hierarchies & Chunking  Hierarchy o Participants presented with a meaningful hierarchy remembered more than three times as many words o Enhances understanding of how these diverse elements are related, and as we proceed from top to bottom o Hierarchy has visual organization - using imagery as a supplemental memory code Mnemonic Devices  Mnemonics o Refers to ―the art of improving memory‖ o Device is any type of memory aid o Ex.  Hierarchies  Chunking  Acronyms  Rhymes  Phrases – never eat shreaded wheat  Personal meaning Visual Imagery  Propositional coding o Visual-spatial information is stored as a set of verbal descriptions  Analog Coding o Store information as a mental image  Dual-Coding Theory o Information is stored in long-term memory in two forms:  Verbal Codes  Non-verbal (typically visual) codes o Using both forms enhances memory – odds improve at least one code will be available later o Harder for some stimuli than others  Ex. Fire truck vs. knowledge  Knowledge - abstract concepts - easier to encode semantically  Method of Loci (Ancient Greeks) o Multiple use mnemonics o Forming images that link items to places. o Remembering components of working memory.  President‘s Office -> Executive Control System  Band Rehearsal -> Phonological Loop  Art Class -> Visual-Spatial Sketchpad How Prior Knowledge Shapes Encoding Schemas: Mental Organizers  ―Mental framework‖  Organized pattern of thought about some aspect of the world  Ex. Class of people, events, situations or objects  Formed through experience  Influence the way material is encoded into memory  Creates a perceptual set – readiness to perceive – to organize and interpret – information  Ex. o Reading a paragraph of how to wash clothes without knowing its about washing clothes – hard to do o Told it is about washing clothes – schema for washing clothes helps organize ideas and allow for greater recall Schemas, Encoding & Expertise  Expert Knowledge o Process of developing schemas – mental frameworks – that help to encode information into meaningful patters o Ex. Musicians encode musical sheet easier than individuals who have not read musical notes Storage: Retaining Information Memory As A Network Associative Networks  Massive network of associated ideas and concepts  Each concept or unit of information—represented by a node  Lines in this network represent associations between concepts o Shorter lines indicating stronger associations  Spreading Activation o Ex. ―fire engine,‖ related concepts, such as ―truck,‖ ―fire,‖ and ―red,‖ should be partially activated as well  Priming o Refers to the activation of one concept (or one unit of information) by another o Ex. ―Fire engine‖ primes the node for ―red,‖ - more likely that memory for red will be accessed Neural Networks  Has nodes that are linked to one another, but these nodes are physical in nature and do not contain individual units of information  Each concept is represented by a particular pattern or set of nodes that becomes activated simultaneously o Activated nodes: 9, 42 -> red o Activated nodes: 9, 42, 75, 60 -> something else  Fire in parallel at each instant and spread their activation to other nodes, concepts and information are retrieved and thoughts arise  Referred to as parallel distributed processing models Types of Long-Term Memory Declarative & Procedural Memory  Declarative Memory o Involves factual knowledge, and includes two subcategories  Episodic Memory o Store of factual knowledge concerning personal experiences: when, where, and what happened in the episodes of our lives  Semantic Memory o Represents general factual knowledge about the world and language, including memory for words and concepts  Declarative Memory o Episodic and semantic memories o Demonstrate our knowledge, typically have to ―declare it‖  Procedural Memory (Nondeclarative Memory) o Reflected in skills and actions o Components  Consists of skills that are expressed by ―doing things‖ in particular situations  Ex. Typing, riding a bicycle, or playing a musical instrument o Classically conditioned responses also reflect procedural memory Explicit & Implicit Memory  Explicit Memory o Involves conscious or intentional memory retrieval, as when you consciously recognize or recall something o Recognition  Requires us to decide whether a stimulus is familiar  Ex. Eyewitness is asked to pick out a suspect from a police lineup o Recall involves spontaneous memory retrieval o Must retrieve target stimuli or information on your own  Implicit Memory o When memory influences our behaviour without conscious awareness o Implicit, procedural memory enables you to keep executing the skill while thinking about something else. o Ex. Riding a bicycle, driving, or performing any well-learned skill Retrieval: Accessing Information  Retrieval Cue o Any stimulus, whether internal or external, that stimulates the activation of information stored in long-term memory Value of Multiple & Self-Generated Cues  Students asked to write an association for each word, other students asked to write three associations for each word (504 words)  Recall test was given  Multiple, self-generated retrieval cues were the most effective approach to maximizing recall o Generating our own associations involves deeper, more elaborative rehearsal than being presented with associations by someone else o Self-generated associations become cues with meaning. If one fails, there are more  Associating each word with three others help form distinctive cues o Distinctive stimuli are better remembered Value of Distinctiveness  Distinctive Stimuli o Less likely to ―blend in‖ with other words in order to be retrievable o Better remembered o Increase recall when all the material ―starts looking alike‖ is to make it distinctive by associating it with other information – personally meaningful Flashbulb Memory: Fogging Up Picture?  Flashbulb Memories o Recollections that seem so vivid, so clear, that we can picture them as if they were a snapshot of a moment in time o Most likely to occur for distinctive, positive or negative events that evoke strong emotional reactions o Flashbulb seemed to fade with time  Memory Accuracy o Not related to whether students originally had agreed or disagreed with the verdict, but those who reported a stronger emotional reaction  Student responding incorrectly – more confident in their answers  Confidence and accuracy are weakly Context, State & Mood Effects on Memory  Encoding Specificity Principle o Memory is enhanced when conditions present during retrieval match those that were present during encoding o Stimuli associated with an event may become encoded as part of the memory and later serve as retrieval cues o Ex.  Rape victim was in shock and could not remember the assa
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