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Thinking and Problem Solving 2.docx

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Psychology 1000

Thinking and Problem Solving Jan. 10, 2013 Next Time: Intelligence Scan: p. 355 - 363 Agenda:  Language Learning  Heuristic Processing  Problem Solving Question:  How do infants acquire language?  What is thought?  What shortcut do people use when problem solving? How many morphemes are in the word, “crosswords”? Answer is: b root word is: crossword and “s” Need to find the root word first Language:  Properties  Syntax  Humor  Surface vs. deep structure o Sensitivity to foreign contrasts drops as infant approaches 12 months. Suggests… o Infants are “hard-wired” for language acquisition  The One-Word Speaker o 5 to 8 months of age, respond to parents’ words o Talking begins 10 to 20 months o Early vocabulary simple  E.g. nouns: (mama, duck, papa)  Interactions (hi, peekaboo -> hard word, pick up important to them)  Adjectives (hot, big) o #1 word the infant pick up is NO o Likely to contain objects that infant can manipulate (“ball” more likely than “ceiling”) o Note:  Difficult to tell what kids mean when they use single words  Tend to undergeneralize  The Two-Word Speaker o Telegraphic speech o Starts around 2 years old o Vocabulary -> about several hundred words o Speech shows proper organization o “throw ball” not “ball throw”  They picked up syntax o By 2.5 years old child moves beyond 2 words, and sentences become more complex o Start searching for rules of generalization o The 4 or 5 year old makes mistakes in tense  E.g. “runned” not “ran” “eated” not “ate” o Child now overgeneralizes rules o Formal schooling takes over  Nature vs. Nurture o So far, it seems as if the brain is “hard-wired” for language o Will language develop “on its own”?  Wild children  NO o Consider Amala (1.5 years) and Kamala (8 years)  Isolated Children  Maybe o Isabelle (6 years old) -> yes o Dominique (5 year old) -> yes o Genie (14 year old) -> no  No Models  E.g. deaf kids with hearing parents who do not sign  Kids develop own signs with rudimentary syntax  Other Animals?  E.g. Chimp?  Basics only  No real syntax  No
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