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Lecture 4

Lecture 4 - Research Methods.docx

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Psychology 1000

Psychology 1000 Research Methods September 18, 2012 Next Time: Methods & Bio Bases Scan: Finish Chapter 2 + p. 69-75  How do we validate claims?  How do you design an experiment?  What are the advantages of the experimental method? Getting the most from a lecture:  Active listening is important  Attend to the speaker, anticipate  Read ahead  Write speaker’s comments in your own words  Attend to “clues”  Ask questions  Festinger (1957): theory called cognitive dissonance Scientific Method 1. Identify the problem & formulate a hypothesis  Hypothesis: tentative statement about a relation between 2 or more events  Theory:  Collection of hypotheses  An organizing system  More general, elaborate  Good theories generate good (testable) hypotheses (e.g. theory of relativity -> lots of hypotheses that could be generated)  Compare: Freudian Theory & Behaviour Theory  Behaviour Theory is better because it can be measured and tested -> generates a testable hypothesis  Freud talking about the unconscious -> difficult to measure and test, though it still does have an impact 2. Design & execute the experiment: variables & control  Identify Variables (THIS WILL BE ON THE EXAM)  Independent variables are manipulated  Dependent variables are measured  We want to say that changes in the independent variables (and only those changes) cause changes in dependent variables  Without proper control, the experiment is confounded -> not controlled well enough; other things may be the cause for the changes in the dependent variables - Pepsi vs. Coke o The order people drank it Psychology 1000 Research Methods September 18, 2012 o May have had a tolerance to coke o People like M more than Q -> should counter-balance it o Pepsi paid for it -> funding source bias o Not double-blinded o Vague – “more than half” o Cultural/geographical effect o Maybe there was an incentive 3. Determine the “Truth”  Do your results support the hypothesis?  Are there any real differences? -> statistics 4. Communicate Results  Publish a report in journal  Present a verbal desc
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