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Lecture 8

Psychology Lecture 8.docx

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Psychology 1000

Psychology Lecture 8: The Brain  Cortical Organization  Neural Disorders  Lateralization  Split Brain 1. How are the cortical areas organized? 2. What happens if these areas are damaged? 3. Is there a separate consciousness in each hemisphere?  Projection Areas 1. Topographical Representation a. As you move around the motor cortex, it corresponds to a motor reflex b. Start at one end, toes, to other end, head c. More brain tissue dedicated to face rather than body 2. Contralateral Control a. Left controls visual and audial areas b. Right controls motor reflex and reaction 3. Functional Assignment of Space a. More function required, such as face, very important, then a lot of space is needed in the motor cortex and getting more function out of it  How do we get this information? o Scan intact brain  Angiogram  X-Rays enhanced with dye  See if someone has a clot or has had a stroke  Only shows blood vessels and if they have been damaged, not functions or much of structures  CAT scan (Computerized Axial Tomography)  X-Rays from 360 degree rotation  Tons of pictures taken at full rotation and pieced together for a good picture of the brain  Can see structural evidence of damage  MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)  Expose to strong magnetic field  Shows structures very effectively  When used alongside other scans, gives very good representation of the brain at the time of scan  PET scan (Positron Emission Tomography)  Inject radioactive glucose to light up the brain to show activity  Red means high activity, blue means little activity  Not for structural information, meant for functional information o Evidence from brain damage o Direct stimulation of cortex  There are small areas where we show that are dedicated to certain functions (motor, visual etc.) o The rest of that space is an association area for each dedicated function  Association Areas o Integrate and Interpret  Neural Disorders  Apraxia o Inability to perform smooth actions  Ex. Asked to pass a cup of coffee, cannot piece together the movements to do it  Agnosia o Inability to interpret senso
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