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sept 13 lecture- What is Psychology?.docx

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Western University
Psychology 1000

Sept 13, 2012 What is Psychology? What do Psychologists do? Pioneers of Psychology Scientific Method Next time: Methods Scan: Chapter 2, page 48-68 (look at title, see what’s going on, be familiar with the material) Important questions of Today:  What do psychologists do?  Who are the pioneers of psychology?  How do we determine which claims about psychology are valid? Low-latent prohibition: person’s relatively low ability to sort things out-jump from topic to topic Reading the text (how to read from textbook) 1. Think about background info 2. Survey titles, headings, etc. 3. Outline the chapter (what’s the most essential thing) 4. Decide how much you will read 5. As you start, look at heading and ask “what is this about” 6. Look at layout for clues (bold/italics) 7. Look for the “big picture”, do not memorize, understand the context/theories 8. Paraphrase section…put notes in margin…key words, concepts 9. Make summary notes (simple, able to reconstruct materials) 10.Make up test questions. Basic Time Management 1. Identify your “best time” for study 2. Study difficult subjects first 3. Use distributed learning 4. Make sure environment supportive (somewhere quiet, distraction free) 5. Set time for your social life 6. Set time to sleep & eat and workout 7. Combine activities Schools of Psychology cont’ Gestalt Tradition (continue last lecture notes: functionalism…behaviorism..)  Focus on perception and experience  Look at how people think and remember Sept 13, 2012  Consider everything in context (cannot study behavior by itself, look at everything)  Both biological and environmental  Modern Example o Cognition o Information processing Humanistic Tradition  Focus on values and choice (affects humans’ life)  Help people fulfill potential (humanists say that everyone want to maximize their lives)  Both biological and environmental  Modern Example o Carl rogers’ therapy (allow patients to talk about various situations. Psychoanalysts simply ask what is wrong with the person) o The “self” On exams: understand distinctions between schools Gives situations where therapist treats patient, asks what type of school… Psychology  43%-clinical (American Psychological Association + Canadian~), dealing with mental issues in clinics or hospital settings, or work as research clinical psychologists  11%-counseling (deal with normal and abnormal behavior eg. Relationship counseling)  4% developmental psychologists: what happens before or during time organism is born to adulthood, concerned with aging+development.  5%- educational psychologists: know about educational system, know what is good for students..  8%-experimental: do work on memory, learning, info processing  7%-industrial organization: how to hire/award people properly. Work with factors involved in workplace  2%-personality: concerned with traits in personality and developing skills. Concerned with trying to identify stable personality traits  7%- school: counseling psychologists who talk about school/education related things. E.g; guidance counselor.  4%-social: deal with situations that people encounter on everyday basis  9%-others: a lot of different things, particular niche, e.g; legal aspects, jury..etc.. Pioneers of Psychology  Rene Descartes (not a psychologist but a mathematician, philosopher), interested in psychology o Studied how brain/neural system works. He came up with the idea of reflex arc Sept 13, 2012  Gustav Fechner o Mathematician
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