Sept 18, 2012
More Study Tips
Next time: Methods + Bio Bases
Scan: Chapt. 2 + p.69-75
How do we validate claims?
How do you design an experiment?
What are the advantages of the experimental method?
Getting the Most from Lecture
Active listening important
o Attend to speaker…anticipate
Write speaker’s comments in your own words
Attend to “clues”
Prediction for lying: $1 or $20:
Festinger (1957)- Cognitive Dissonance
1. Identify the problem & formulate hypothesis
2. Design & execute the experiment variables & control
3. Determine the “truth”
4. Communicate the results
1. Identify Problem
Hypothesis: tentative statement about a relation between 2 or more events
o Collection of hypotheses
o An organizing system
o More general, elaborate
o Prediction in hypotheses come from theories; ie, more violence you see, the
more violent you become comes from social learning theory
o Good theories generate good (testable) hypotheses; ie, Theory of Relativity
o Freudian Theory; theory of relativity is tested more easily than Freudian
o Behavior Theory: could be measured. It is better theory than Freudian
Theory because it is more easily tested. It generates testable hypotheses Sept 18, 2012
2. Design & execute Experiment (on exam)
o Identify variable
o Independent manipulated
o Dependent measured
o We examine if independent variable CAUSES changes in
We want to say that:
Independent causes Dependent
Without proper control, the experiment is confounded
Ex. Psychologist tests effectiveness of weight loss program. One group receives diet
+ counseling. 2 goup diet, no counseling. Subjects are weighed weekly for months.
-What is the independent variable? Diet with the counseling program/without
-What is the dependent variable? Weight
Problem (confounded)-pepsi vs. coke
More than HALF preferred the taste of Pepsi.
- The word “half ” is vague
- People have preference on letters
3. Determine the “Truth”
Do your results support the hypothesis?
Are there any REAL differences? need statistics
4. Communicate Results
- Publish a report in journal
- Present a verbal description of results at a convention
- Discuss several related experiments in book chapter
- Be able to put them together
- How to pull out variables?
- Psychologists are interested in explaining the causes of