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sept 18 lecture- Research Methods.docx

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Western University
Psychology 1000

Sept 18, 2012 Research Methods More Study Tips Scientific Method Research Design Next time: Methods + Bio Bases Scan: Chapt. 2 + p.69-75 Today’s Question How do we validate claims? How do you design an experiment? What are the advantages of the experimental method? Getting the Most from Lecture  Active listening important o Attend to speaker…anticipate  Read ahead  Write speaker’s comments in your own words  Attend to “clues”  Ask questions Prediction for lying: $1 or $20: Festinger (1957)- Cognitive Dissonance Scientific Method 1. Identify the problem & formulate hypothesis 2. Design & execute the experiment  variables & control 3. Determine the “truth” 4. Communicate the results 1. Identify Problem Hypothesis: tentative statement about a relation between 2 or more events Theory: o Collection of hypotheses o An organizing system o More general, elaborate o Prediction in hypotheses come from theories; ie, more violence you see, the more violent you become comes from social learning theory o Good theories generate good (testable) hypotheses; ie, Theory of Relativity Compare: o Freudian Theory; theory of relativity is tested more easily than Freudian Theory o Behavior Theory: could be measured. It is better theory than Freudian Theory because it is more easily tested. It generates testable hypotheses Sept 18, 2012 2. Design & execute Experiment (on exam) o Identify variable o Independent  manipulated o Dependent  measured o We examine if independent variable CAUSES changes in dependent variable o Control  We want to say that: Independent causes Dependent Without proper control, the experiment is confounded Ex. Psychologist tests effectiveness of weight loss program. One group receives diet + counseling. 2 goup diet, no counseling. Subjects are weighed weekly for months. -What is the independent variable? Diet with the counseling program/without counseling program -What is the dependent variable? Weight Problem (confounded)-pepsi vs. coke More than HALF preferred the taste of Pepsi. - The word “half ” is vague - People have preference on letters - Order 3. Determine the “Truth” Do your results support the hypothesis? Are there any REAL differences?  need statistics 4. Communicate Results - Publish a report in journal - Present a verbal description of results at a convention - Discuss several related experiments in book chapter - Be able to put them together - How to pull out variables? Summary - Psychologists are interested in explaining the causes of
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