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Lecture 5

Lecture 5 - Biological Functions.docx

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Psychology 1000

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Psychology 1000 Biological Foundations September 20, 2012 Next time: The Synapse Scan: pg. 73-78  What are some sources of bias in an experiment  What is the basic structure of a neuron?  How do neurons “work”?  Causality, to make a causal claim, manipulation of variables must be done and measured (experiment)  All observational studies are correlational, cannot make causal conclusions  Within groups design experiment  All participants are exposed to all conditions  Problem: possible to get the order effect  Need to counterbalance it  Between groups independent variable and a within groups variable  Measuring aggression  Self-Report  Verbal attack  Physical attack  Milgrim experiment -> you can deliver an electric shock to the other person  You can choose the level to which the other person is being shocked and how long they are shocked for  “Safe” attack  Albert Bandura’s Bobo doll experiment  Threats to Validity:  Internal Validity  Degree to which experiment supports causal conclusion  External Validity  Degree to which results can be generalized  Demand Characteristics  Cues in experiment convey hypothesis to participants  Participants will figure out the hypothesis and “help” the experimenter  Geen & Berkowitz (1967)  Experimenter Expectancy  Experimenter “conveys” hypothesis to participants  Intons-Peterson  What do lab experiments tell us about everyday life?  See what happens in the lab -> demonstrate that there is a causal link -> see if it happens in everyday life too; done for control  Doesn’t behaviour depend on one’s culture or gender or personality?  Yes -> everything is different when you switch things around Psychology 1000 Biological Foundations September 20, 2012  We can measure it  By random assignment, we can make up for the differences within people  What do animal experiments tell us about human behaviour?  Many things are easier to do with animals than it is with humans  It can tell us a lot about human behaviour, for example, research done for human visual research was initially done on cats  Build animal models for what might happen in humans  Is it ethical to experiment with animals/humans?  Always a trade off  Any of the psychological tests have to go through ethical tests  Mostly a judgment call; sc
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