Psychology 1000 Biological Foundations September 20, 2012
Next time: The Synapse
Scan: pg. 73-78
What are some sources of bias in an experiment
What is the basic structure of a neuron?
How do neurons “work”?
Causality, to make a causal claim, manipulation of variables must be done and measured
All observational studies are correlational, cannot make causal conclusions
Within groups design experiment
All participants are exposed to all conditions
Problem: possible to get the order effect
Need to counterbalance it
Between groups independent variable and a within groups variable
Milgrim experiment -> you can deliver an electric shock to the other person
You can choose the level to which the other person is being shocked and how long they are
Albert Bandura’s Bobo doll experiment
Threats to Validity:
Degree to which experiment supports causal conclusion
Degree to which results can be generalized
Cues in experiment convey hypothesis to participants
Participants will figure out the hypothesis and “help” the experimenter
Geen & Berkowitz (1967)
Experimenter “conveys” hypothesis to participants
What do lab experiments tell us about everyday life?
See what happens in the lab -> demonstrate that there is a causal link -> see if it happens in
everyday life too; done for control
Doesn’t behaviour depend on one’s culture or gender or personality?
Yes -> everything is different when you switch things around Psychology 1000 Biological Foundations September 20, 2012
We can measure it
By random assignment, we can make up for the differences within people
What do animal experiments tell us about human behaviour?
Many things are easier to do with animals than it is with humans
It can tell us a lot about human behaviour, for example, research done for human visual
research was initially done on cats
Build animal models for what might happen in humans
Is it ethical to experiment with animals/humans?
Always a trade off
Any of the psychological tests have to go through ethical tests
Mostly a judgment call; sc