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Psychology Chapter 11.docx

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Western University
Psychology 1000
Shelley Cross- Mellor

Psychology Chapter 11 January 24, 2012 Chapter 11: Motivation and Emotion What is Motivation? o Persevere to attain dreams? o Stretch boundaries of human achievement? o Process that influences the direction, persistence, vigour of goal-directed behaviour o Instinct Theory Early View, inspired by Darwin Born with predisposition to behave in a specific, predictable way when exposed to a particular stimulus Perspectives on Motivation o Modern Evolutionary Psychology Adaptive significance is key to understanding motivation Motivated to engage in behaviours to promote survival advantages Example: why are we social creatures? Why do we seek the company of others Protection Find a mate Sharing resources o Drive Theory Disruptions to homeostasis results in drives Drives = states of internal tension that motivate an organism to behave in ways that reduce tension pushes organism into action Hunger or Thirst? Whats wrong with this? Not everything is at a constant equilibrium o Incentives Stimuli that pull organism toward goal o Expectancy X Value Theory Behaviour is determined by Strength of expectation that behaviour will lead to a goal Incentive value that person places on goal Motivation = expectancy x incentive value Example: Shelley, Leslie, and Carrie similar math aptitudes Shelley believes studying hard will result in better grades, and values an A highly = gets an A Leslie believes studying will help, but doesnt value an A = gets a C Carrie values an A, but thinks tests are tricky and studying unlikely to help = gets a C o Extrinsic Motivation Performing an activity to obtain an external reward or to avoid punishment o Intrinsic Motivation Performing an activity for its own sake o Extrinsic rewards decrease intrinsic motivation when they are tangible o Extrinsic rewards perceived as information (positive feedback) increase feelings of competence and intrinsic motivation Psychodynamic View o Unconscious motive affect how we behave Freud emphasized sexual and aggressive motives (often come out in careers chosen) Many modern theorists emphasize motives for self-esteem and social belonging Perspectives on Motivation o Humanistic Perspective Striving for personal growth Need hierarchy must fulfill certain needs first Deficiency Needs o Physical and social survival Human Growth Needs o Uniquely human, help us develop our potential Self-Actualization o peak of the mountain be all that you can be Idea: as needs are met progress to full potential Achievement Motivation o Need for achievement Desire for accomplishment and excellence Stable personality characteristic Individual differences o People are motivated to succeed because of Motive for success Fear of failure o Those with strong motive for success Mastery Goals Intrinsic motivation Desire to master tasks, learn knowledge, skills Performance-Approach Goals Desire to be judged favourably compared to others I am motivated by the thought of outperforming my peers Situational Factors o High-Need Achievers Ambitious Persist longer at difficult task Perform best when conditions are challenging o Strive hard for success when perceive Responsible for outcome Risk of not succeeding Potential feedback o Prefer situations of Family Influences o Parental Attitudes High need for achievement? Want to praise success Encourage and reward achievement, dont punish failure Fear of Failure Achievement taken for granted; failure is punished Provide kids with cognitively stimulating home environment that has many opportunities for learning fosters intrinsic motivation to perform academic tasks Family and Cultural Influences o Individualistic Cultures Stress personal achievement Example: Canada, USA, Western Europe o Collectivistic Cultures Meet expectations of family and social group Example: China, Japan Control of Eating o Most believe hunger and eating are triggered when the bodys energy resources fall below a prescribed level or set point o A negative feedback system eating is turned on when energy is needed, off when set point is reached o But is there a set point? People eat for a variety of reasons, not just hunger Whats the Set-Point? o If we eat to maintain an energy homeostasis, what is monitored? o Glucostatic Theories glucose levels determine set point o Lipostatic Theories fat stores determine set point o Glucose levels determine when we eat, fat stores determine amount of consumption over long-term (explaining why weight tends to be constant) Problems with Set-Point Theorie
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