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Psychology Chapter 12.docx

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Psychology 1000
Shelley Cross- Mellor

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Psychology Chapter 12 January 31, 2012 Chapter 12: Development Over the Lifespan Developmental Psychology o Studies physical, cognitive and psychosocial changes across the lifespan o Two methods of conducting research Longitudinal Research Study the same participants over a long period of time Problems: expensive and possible drop outs Cross Sectional Research Groups of participants, of different ages (cohort), studied at same time Problem: cohort peculiarities (60 year olds dont have the same education as 10 year olds have now) Major Issues and Methods o Issues Nature and Nurture Is it the environment or heredity that effects our development? Critical and Sensitive Periods Critical Period = age where experiences must occur Sensitive Periods = optimal age range where experiences may occur Continuity Versus Discontinuity Is it development gradual and continuous or distinct stages? o Do cognitive abilities gradually increase or occur in stages Stability Versus Change Do things remain constant across the lifespan? Developmental Functions How Processes Change o No change Remains constant (example: figure-ground perception, discriminate high vs. low pitch) o Continuous Gradual changes (example: certain types of intelligence) o Stages Discontinuous changes (example: motor development rolling to crawling to standing to walking) o Inverted U-Shape Emerges early peaks diminishes with age (example: separation anxiety, acuity) o U-Shape Function Emerges early disappears re-emerges (example: stepping reflex, when a baby is born if you put it on a flat surface they will make stepping movements, all of a sudden that will stop, then they learn to walk) Prenatal Development (3 Stages) o Germinal First 2 weeks Zygote attaches to uterine wall o Embryonic 2 to 8 week Placenta and umbilical cord develop o Fetal th Begins at 9 week 28 weeks = age of viability Prenatal Development o Genetics ard Sex Determination 23 chromosome = X or Y Females = XX Males = XY o Y chromosome contains TDF (testes determining factor) Initiates development of testes Testes secrete androgens o Critical Period = 6-8 Weeks Insufficient androgen activity = female o Environmental influences o Teratogens noxious substance or factors that can disrupt prenatal development X-Rays: disrupt development of brain cells Drugs: abnormal physical and psychological development Alcohol: FAS; mental retardation, facial disfiguration, ADHD o Maternal Malnutrition Miscarriage, premature birth, stillbirth, impaired brain development o Maternal Stress (Stress Hormones) Premature birth, infant irritability, attention deficits o Fetal Behaviour Changes in heart rate and movements during 3 trimester to loud sounds o Fetal Learning Habituate to repeated presentations of stimuli Newborns prefer sounds that were familiar during fetal development Measured with vigour of sucking rate Amazing Newborn o Tactile, auditory, and chemical perceptual senses operating at birth o Orient to significant stimuli Sound, tactile, odours o Visual system is poorly developed at birth Limited acuity at birth About 20/800 Prefer patterned stimuli Prefer mothers face Sensation and Perception: Vision o What can newborns see, how do we know? o Preferential Looking Procedure Measure how long infant looks at a stimulus Idea = newborns look longer at stimuli they find interesting Determine when detail becomes interesting Sensory-Perceptual Development o Vision 20/800 at birth 20/100 at 6 months Develops in continuous fashion 3-4 months = organized according to Gestalt principles (subjective contours, closure etc) Discriminate internal features of face Develops in stage-like fashion Newborn Learning? o Habituation o 2 days old show head-turning toward off-centered speech o Can acquire classically conditioned responses Touch forehead (CS) with delivery of milk to mouth (UCS) newborns show CR (puckering) to CS o 3 day old learn to suck plastic nipple in certain pattern to trigger tape recording of moms voice o Can do simple observational learning Sensory-Perceptual Development o Audition Sound Localization U-Shaped function, present at birth, disappears at 4 months, reappears at 6 months Phoneme Discrimination Exceeds that of an adult (pre-wired for any language?) 1-2 months detect changes in bah vs. dah, even in sounds not used in native language, di
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