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Psychology 1000 (2,472)
Terry Biggs (155)


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Psychology 1000
Terry Biggs

Motivation & Emotion What is Motivation?  A process that influences: The direction The persistence The vigour of goal-directed behaviour Perspectives on Motivation  Early view: Instinct Theory Instincts motivate much behaviour  Modern Evolutionary Psychology Adaptive significance: We are motivated to engage in behaviour that promotes survival advantages  Hemeostasis State of internal physiological equilibrium  Drive theory (Hull, 1943, 1951) Physiological disruptions to homeostasis produce drives to behave in a certain way (e.g. thirst influences drinking) “pushes” organism into action  Incentive theory Environmental stimuli motivate behaviour “pulls” organism into action  Expectancy x value theory Goal-directed behaviour is jointly determined by expectation that behaviour will lead to a goal and the value the individual places on the goal (incentive value) Motivation = expectancy x incentive value  Extrinsic motivation Performing an activity to obtain an external reward or avoid punishment  Intrinsic motivation Performing an activity because you find it enjoyable or stimulating Humanistic Theory – Abraham Maslow Self -Actualization Motivation  The Biological Perspective  Initiating hunger Decreases in blood glucose levels are detected by liver sensors, which convert stored nutrients back into glucose Drop-rise pattern may be a signal of “hunger” to the brain  Stopping eating Stomach and intestinal distention Peptides sent into bloodstream as food arrives in intestines from the stomach  Leptin: a hormone in the fat cells that decreases appetite (Halaas et al., 1995)  Lateral hypothalamus (LH): may be involved in stimulating eating, but is not a “hunger on” center  Ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH): may influence stopping eating, but is not a “hunger off” center Psychological Aspects of Hunger  Eating is positively reinforced by good tastes and negatively reinforced b
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