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Psych1000- Chapter 8 Memory.doc

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Psychology 1000
Erica Lawson

Chapter 8 MemoryHMHippocampus and surrounding brain tissue removed to reduce his epileptic seizuresOperation successful but left HM with amnesiaCan discuss childhood teens and early twentiesForgotten some events that occurred within the two year prior to surgeryLost the ability to form new memoriesHe cannot remember new facts nor retain the meaning of words that have entered the English language since his operationOnce an experience leaves his immediate train of though he cannot remember itDepart for a couple minutes he will not recognize youForgets his favourite uncle died and has relearned it and experienced the grief many times over againMemory refers to the processes that allow us to record and later retrieve experiences and informationMemory as Information ProcessingEbbinghaus rate at which new information is forgottenGalton investigated peoples memories for personal events Encoding refers to getting information into the system by translating it into a neural code that your brain processes Storage involves retaining information over time Once in a system information must be filed away and saved as happens when a computer stores information on a hard drive Finally there must be a way to pull information out of storage when we want to use it a process called retrievalAnalogy between humans and computers is crude because humans routinely forget and often remember things that never happenedA ThreeComponent ModelAtkinson and Shiffrin proposed that memory has three major components sensory memory shortterm or working memory and longterm memoryModel does not assume that each component corresponds to a specific structure within the brainThe components may involve interrelated neural sites and memory researchers use these terms in a more abstract senseSensory MemorySensory memory holds incoming sensory information just long enough for it to be recognizedIt is composed of different subsystems called sensory registers which are the initial information processorsVisual sensory register is called the iconic storeTime course for visual sensory memory is very briefIt is difficult perhaps impossible to retain complete information in purely visual form for more than a fraction of a secondThe auditory sensory register called the echoic store is studied by asking participants to recall different sets of numbers or letters that are simultaneously presented to their left and right ears via headphonesEchoic memory lasts longer than iconic memoryA nearly complete echoic trace may last about two seconds and a partial trace may linger for several moreShortTermWorking MemoryBecause our attentional capabilities are limited most information in sensory memory simply fades awayBut through selective attention a small portion enters shortterm memory which hold the information that we are conscious of at any given timeShortterm memory also is referred to as working memory because it consciously processes codes and works on information Mental RepresentationsOnce information leaves sensory memory it must be represented by some type of code if it is to be retained in shortterm and eventually longterm memoryMental representations or memory codes can take various formsWe may try to o Form a mental image visual encodingo Code something by sound phonological encoding o Focus on the meaning of a stimulus semantic encoding o For physical actions such as learning sports we code patterns of movement motor encodingThe form of a memory code often does not correspond to the form of the original stimulusWhen you read this you are not storing the way that the letters look you use phonological code which is saying the words to yourselfWhen people are presented with lists of words or letters and asked to recall them immediately the errors that they make often are phoneticLikewise given word lists such as 1 main mad cap can map 2 old late thin wet hot and 3 big huge broad long tallpeople become most confused recalling the first list in which the words sound similarCapacity and DurationCan hold only a limited amount of information at a timeMost people can hold no more than five to nine meaningful items at the magical number seven plus or minus twoThe limit on short term memory capacity concerns the number of meaningful units that can be recalled and the original 17 letters have been combined into five meaningful words Combining individual items into larger units of meaning is called chunking and it can greatly aid recallShort term memory is limited in duration as well as capacity Be rehearsing information we can extend its duration in shortterm memory indefinitelyThis simple repetition of information is called maintenance rehearsal
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