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6. Nov 6 --Learning.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 1000
Professor
Lynn Jackson
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 6: Learning November 5, 2012 HOW DID THE BEHAVIOURAL STUDY OF LEARNING DEVELOP? Learning an enduring change in behaviour, resulting from experience Conditioning a process in which environmental stimuli and behavioural responses become connected o TWO KINDS OF CONDITIONING: 1. Classical Conditioning (Pavlovian Conditioning) occurs when we learn that two type of events go together. Ie. when watching a scary movie, our heart beats faster 2. Operant Conditioning (Instrumental Conditioning) occurs when we learn that a behaviour leads to a particular outcome Ie. studying leads to better grades Observational Learning learning by observing how others behave Watson founded behaviourism (a school of thought based on the belief that animals and humans are born with the potential to learn) o Behaviourism based on John Lockes idea of blank slate (tabula rasa) which states that infants are born knowing nothing and all knowledge is acquired through sensory experiences States that environment and its associated effects on animals were the sole determinants of learning o Believed observable behaviour was the only valid indicator of psychological activity Enuresisbed-wetting; most strong up to age 5, then down to 10 percent 5-11, then 5% after 12 years Behavioural Responses are Conditioned Pavlovs Experiments: Classical (Pavlovian) Conditioning a type of learned response that occurs when a neutral object comes to elicit a reflexive response when it is associated with a stimulus that already produces that response o Pavlovs dogs and psychic reflexes salivation is a reflex; automatic response o Noticed that the dogs salivated (CR) even when he would walk into the room because they came to associate his presence (CS) because they came to associate him with the meat powder (US). (called this PSYCHIC SALIVATION/REFLEXES) Moral: our physiological processes are subject to learning through repeated association. o Example of the Office clip. Discovered association between stimuli and reflexive Neutral Stimulus is presented along with the stimulus that originally causes no response (ie. the bell on DAY 1 of the experiment) prior to association with the US Conditioning Trial the pairing of the neutral stimulus with the stimulus producing the reflex; repeated many times o Following the conditioning trials, a critical trial takes place, where the neutral stimulus is presented alone and the reflex is measured Unconditioned Response (UR) a response that does not have to be learned, such as a reflex (ie. salivation in response to meat); natural/unlearned reaction Unconditioned Stimulus (US) a stimulus that elicits a response, such as a reflex, without any prior learning; naturally! (ie. the meat) Conditioned Stimulus (CS) a stimulus that elicits a response only after learning has taken place (ie. the bell AFTER repeated pairing with the meat) the point at which it alone can produce salivation, which becomes the CR Conditioned Response (CR) a response to a conditioned stimulus that has been learned (ie. salivation after the bell) o The conditioned response usually is weaker than the unconditioned response NS NO RESPONSE US UR NS+US LEARNED ASSOCIATION CS CR VERY IMPORTANT Applications of Classical Conditioning o Psychological treatments, for example: Enuresis In a child who does NOT wet the bed, a full bladder is an US that creates the UR of waking up, but for a child who DOES wet the bed, the full bladder is a NS. Treatment involves turning it into a CS. NS = full bladder (doesnt cause waking up; peeing the bed) Treatment: A new US (buzzer) = UR (wake up) as soon as bladder is full Pairing full bladder + buzzer Over time, full bladder becomes the CS; and the CR is them waking up Phobias Treating fears and phobias using systematic desensitization Phobias can be learned, eg. o Pain is US = fear with pain is UR o Spider is CS, fear of spider is CR Unlearn a phobia by o Learn relaxation response o Create hierarchy of fear o Associate items on hierarchy with relaxation o Gradually, previously feared items become CS for CR of relaxation Virtual reality therapy video about Joanne Acquisition, Extinction, and Spontaneous Recovery Acquisition the gradual formation of an association between the conditioned and the unconditioned stimuli o The critical element in the acquisition of a learned association is that the stimuli occur together in time, a bond referred to as contiguity. Extinction a process in which the conditioned response is weakened when the conditioned stimulus is repeated without the unconditioned stimulus o The conditioned response is extinguished when the conditioned stimulus no longer predicts the unconditioned stimulus. Spontaneous Recovery a process in which a previously extinguished response re-emerges following presentation of the conditioned stimuluso Is temporary and will fade quickly if unless the conditioned stimulus is again paired with the unconditioned stimulus o Therefore, extinction inhibits the associative bond but does not eliminate it. Generalization, Discrimination, and Second-Order Conditioning Stimulus Generalization occurs when stimuli that are similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus produce the conditioned response o Adaptive because in nature, the CS is rarely experienced repeatedly in an identical fashion Stimulus Discrimination a differentiation between two similar stimuli when only one of them is consistently associated with the unconditioned stimulus o Animals learn to discriminate between two similar stimuli if one is consistently associated with the unconditioned stimulus and the other is not Second-Order Conditioning when a conditioned stimulus becomes directly associated not with an unconditioned stimuli, but rather another stimuli associated with the US o The dogs learned that the metronome (CS) was followed up by the food (US) which them simulated the salivation (UR). Eventually the dogs began to salivate with just the CS, causing salivation to the metronome to be the CR. THEN a black square was repeatedly presented at the same time as the tone. The was no US, but after a few trials, the presentation of the black square alone began to cause salivation (SECOND ORDER CONDI
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