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Religion and Violence

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Religious Studies
Religious Studies 1023E
Corrine Walsh

Class 9/10 Spectrum of the ambivalence of the sacred Holy War Just War Pacifism Peacemaking Just Peacemaking -Offering new angle of vision on the ethics on war and peace -shifts question to: how do nations, churches, and christians obey the teachings of Jesus and make peace Strict Just War Vs. Permissible Just War Strict Just War -Begins with horror of war -Should be interpreted strictly to place a very high burden of proof on those who would go to war -Citizens and policy makers should have active roles in assessing evidence about the justification of the specific war Permissible Just War -Sees war as an inevitable feature of human life -Emphasizes occasions which war is preferable to unjust or threatening peace -Seems to interpret to find grounds for support that our government wants to wage -Tends to trust government policy makers without seeing particular role for citizens/grassroots Best way to insure America’s security is MORALS -To threaten force rarely and use it almost never Just Peacemaking -Glenn Stassen, Just Peacemaking: Transforming Intiatives for Justice and Peace -Not just debate on bombing and warfare, but questions about how to avoid war and spread peace Practices for Abolishing war -Support non-violent direct action (boycotting) -Use cooperative conflict resolution(try to help people to move past conflict) -Acknowledge responsibility and seek repentance and forgiveness -Advance human rights and religious liberties -Foster economic development -Strengthen the United Nations and international efforts for human rights -Reduce weapons -Encourage grassroots and voluntary associations Motivations for Holy war 1)Fight to defend religion against its enemies 2)Fight to ensure religious conformity and punish deviance -fight within religions… some members aren’t orthodox enough 3)Fight under the direction of charismatic religious leader -motivates people to fight on there behalf JIHAD -From the Arabic root jhd- to exert utmost effort, to strive, struggle -Literally means, “struggle” -“lesser jihab”- refers to political or militant struggle to defend Islam -“greater jihad”-refers to inward striving for perfect peace Just War 312 CE- Constantine’s conversion-made Christianity the state religion -Forces Christians to take up arms to fight… have to protect the state -War seen as necessary evil. Violence is permitted with the aim to limit violence, war and human rights abuses -The goal is to bring about peace and justice Principles of Just War st -Jus ad bellum (just cause)… (1 Question,,, is it a just war) -Legitimate authority -Just cause -Right intention going into stop genocide -Last Resort economic sanctions, political pressures… all efforts exhausted then can be called just war -Reasonable chance of success -Proportionality Jus In Bello ( How we Act) (just conduct) -Non-combatant immunity -Proportionate means Government -Can regain territory -To support other people in war -Going into stop genocide Mihemet Mitzvah -Obligatory war in which Jews are commanded to fight -Primarily includes self-defense & defensive wars -Guidelines for fighting a just war: pursuing peace before waging war -Preserving
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