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Class # 4 - Abrahamic religions.docx

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Religious Studies
Religious Studies 1023E
Corrine Walsh

Class #4: The Abrahamic Religions : Judaism, Christianity & Islam Areas of focus for our discussion:  Religious ancestry  Understanding of Ultimate Reality One God and God is One Creator Infinite & Self-existent The Sacred  Prophets, Revelation and Sacred Texts Abrahamic religions - Judaism, islam and christainity originated from one location and one religion. - Christianity moved from Palestine and Isreal to westwards and north, such as Turkey, Italy, Greece. Religious Ancestry  Abraham/Ibrahim – father of the Jewish and Arab nations  Patriarch “The male head (father) of an ancient family line, a venerable tribal founder or leader ….” (Harris & Platzner, G-33)  Jewish patriarchs: Abraham Isaac Jacob Abraham father of Judaism and Islam. - Not Christianity, b/c this religion branched out from Judaism. Abraham/Ibrahim Ishmae Isaa l c Isla Esa Jaco m u b 12 Tribes of Israel Judais m Christianit y • BCE – before common era or before christ era • AD – Anno Dominum ( year of our lord) • CE – Common era ( 2012). • Book of genesis is a holy book that is recognized by all the 3 religions • Originally known as Ibrahim, but God changed his name to Abraham • Abraham is the founder of monotheism, only one God! • God asks Abraham to obey him and if he does obey God will fulfill his promises. • People were polytheistic before Abraham. • Promise # 1 – grant Abraham and Sara as many children as the stars • Sara lets Abraham to have a child with the maid and then Sara suddenly gets pregnant and has Issac. • Abraham and Haggard have Ishmael as their first son and is known to be the fonder of Islam. • Ishmael was the first son and Sara didn’t want Ishmael to get the inheritance, so they out casted Haggard and Ishmael. • Read “Red Tent” book!! • Jacob, who was the younger son of Issac, had many sons and they are the 12 moses.  Covenant = Hebrew berith “An agreement or compact between individuals (e.g., Abraham & Abimelech – Genesis 21:27); a promise YHWH makes to certain people (e.g., Noah, Abraham, David); a legal bond YHWH forms with a chosen group, such as Israel, and the demands God makes in return.” (Harris & Platzner, G-8) Abrahamic covenant found at Gen 12:1-3, 15:1-21, 17:1-27, 22:15-18 Abrahamic covenant “The series of promises YHWH makes to the patriarch Abraham, including vows to give his descendants nationhood, the territory of Canaan, and a line of kings, and to make them a source of universal blessing.” (Harris & Platzner, G-2) Jews as understanding themselves as being God’s Chosen People  Abraham as model of faith and obedience to God • the law uses the word “ covenant”, which is an agreement you make with someone else. • God makes a covenant with 4 people – Abraham, Noah, Moses, David. Abrahamic covenant • Have sons/ decendents • have land • lineage of kings • source of universal blessing • Noahan covenant – God promises that he will never flood the world. • universal covenant – sign of the rainbow on the covenant. • Mosaic covenant – 10 commandments • Davidic covenant – last of the covanent. • God is making promises to the new Isrealites through King David. • YHWH = tetragrammaton – four letters that spell the name of God • The tetragrammaton is used to name God in a safe way “I am who I am”. • This “name” for God comes when one of the moses encounters a theophany were he sees bushes on fire, but the bush wasn’t burning down, it was just lit and God told the saint, “I am who I am” and that’s how we get the name YHWH. • In many religions, (such as Islam) it is a sin to actually say the name of God • Theophany = encounter with God All three religions believe Ultimate reality as GOD Understanding of Ultimate Reality: One God and God is One  Monotheism  Judaism’s Shema: “Hear, O Israel, the Lord, our God, the Lord is One.” (Deuteronomy 6:4)  Islam’s Shahada: “There is no God but God. Muhammad is the Messenger of God.”  Christianity’s Nicene Creed: “We believe in One God, the Father, the Almighty, maker of heaven and earth, of all things seen and unseen. ….” 1. God is one 2 . God is one on comprehensiveness, which means that the same God, is the God of death, birth, rain, sun. Judaism : Shema – “Hear” Islam: Shahada – “testimony”, it is the first pillar out of the 5 pillars of islam 1 pillar – shahada 2 pillar – Muslims should pray 5 times a day. 3 pillar – Muslims should give to the poor “arms giving” or charity. 4 pillar – fasting during ramadan 5 pillar – Visit the holy place of Mecca once in their lifetime. Christianity – some christians believed that God is divine and that even though Jesus was “killed”, he is divine being and so he never died. But others argued that if he never died and the reason for him dieing was so the sins of the other people would be destroyed. So if he never died, than the sins of the people never got erased. - Roman King Constantine made the state religion Christian, instead of polytheism Nicene Creed – It says that there is one God with 3 forms – God the father, the son and spirit, therefore the “Trinity” “Trinity” = Father St. Patrick holds up the clover leaf and explains Christianity as
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