• Involved when a crime is committed and discovered/reported.
• Police go to the scene of the crime and gather evidence, investigate to build a
case. They try to reconstruct the scene of events.
• Once sufficient evidence is gathered, then they arrest someone and inform
them of their rights. (1. reason for arrest; 2. right to a lawyer in private; 3. right
to a free legal aid; 4. the right to remain silent).
• Once back at the police station, run background information collected to
identify the person.
Booking: Process of gathering information and taking photos.
Bail Phase: if the person is dangerous then the bail is set very high or denied. The
person arrested is held in a cell if the bail is not paid.
Court Systems (provincial and federal):
1) Lower Courts (province appoints)
2) Superior Courts(Federal Government appoints both)
3) Court ofAppeal
1) Lower Courts:
• Summary offences
• Manslaughter or Robbery
• Judge alone
2) Superior Courts:
• Any criminal case
• 1 level of appeal
• Judge or Jury
3) Court of Appeal:
• Panel of Judges (3-5)
• Listens to lawyers from both sides.
• The higher court reviews the actions of the lower court.
• One can get an appeal if procedure was not followed.
• Get a new trial or appeal the length of sentence.
For less serious cases, Alternative Dispute Resolution: • Informal hearing infrastructures designed to mediate interpersonal to mediate
interpersonal disputes without need for the moral formal arrangements of
criminal trial courts.
• Offender hears from victim and how it felt.
1) Federal Courts (trial division)
2) Federal Courts of Appeal
3) Supreme Court of Canada
1) Federal Court
• over 20 judges
• Civil suits against the government.
• Copyright laws.