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Lecture 3

Anthropology Week 3.docx

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Amali Philips

C h a p t e r 3 | 1 Anthropology Week 3 Monday October 1, 2012 Methodological Tasks and Techniques of Trade Sampling: selection or random Note taking in the field Recording, if permitted Strolling: walk about Interviews: - Unstructured: it flows naturally; almost conversation like [qualitative] - Structured: prepared questions that expect answers Life stories or narratives Case studies Filming: ethnographic filming rather than writing ethnographics’ Cross-checking data Participation in local activities Collecting genealogies: kinship information Census data Archival sources Surveying land use Participatory Action Research: involving subjects of research on the research process - Collaborative Research Daily routines Focus groups Access and control: - women have very little property in some cultures - women become aware/ conscious of the inequality C h a p t e r 3 | 2 Value of Ethnographic Fieldwork It corrects false assumptions about other cultures as well as increasing the understanding meanwhile decreasing the misunderstanding It also enables self-reflection of our own culture Avoids culture bound thinking [ethnocentrism] and naive realism It produces and reinforces critical thinking and knowledge Problems and Challenges Time and timing Margaret Mead vs. Freemah: two complete different research in two complete different times M. Mead  Samoa research about sex differences in three different communities. She mainly looked at women and their role in the community. o Partial reason to why Mead focused more on women was because of the communal gender restrictions meaning that the community had set gender restrictions.  Culture has an impact on behaviour Freemah  mainly focused on men also due to the communal gender restrictions. However, Freemah looked at how biology has an influenced, an impact on behaviour The accuracy of representation and the informant’s statement Selecting the informants [who speaks] may also cause a problem Ethnographic present: description only valid for the time it was written in because cultures are constantly changing. The influence of the researcher’s presence in the community  anthropologist change people as well as oneself. Theoretical perspective influences data collection **Gender may affect research due to gender restrictions** Conceptual Tools of the Trade 1. How do we perform research with these tools 2. How do we think through the use of these tools Conceptual Apparatus - Concepts & Theories C h a p t e r 3 | 3 - Hypothesis: testing it on the field - Inductive reasoning: from facts to theory **pyramid method** - Deductive reasoning: from theories to facts **upside down pyramid method** - Are the facts objective? They cannot always be too objective - Knowledge: thinking through the facts, theories and everything Three Modes of Ethnographic Field Work 1. Positivism o System of belief o It explains what
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