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Lecture 9

AN101 Lecture 9

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Anne- Marie Colpron

Lecture 9 2/6/2013 10:26:00 AM Subsistence Strategies:  The patterns of production, distribution, and consumption that members of a society employ to ensure the satisfaction of their basic material survival needs. FOR EXAM FOCUS ON CHAPTERS 1, 2, 3 and 7 Food collectors:  Gathering, fishing and hunting Food producers:  Farming and herding. Food producers: Agriculture:  Extensive agriculture: o Slash-and-burn o You move from place to place  Intensive agriculture: o Animal force, irrigation, fertilizing o You stay in one place  Industrial agriculture: o Machines. Food Producers: Pastoralists:  raising and herding sheep or cattle. Nomad/Sedentary:  Hunter-gatherers: o Nomadic: they do not store food.  Intensive agriculture: o Sedentary: store and preserve food. Are they nomad or sedentary?  Extensive agriculture: o slash and burn horticulture. o nomadic  Pastoralists: o Living from raising sheep and cattle. o Sedimentary Reed’s Text: “forest development the Indian way”  Are Guarani Indians “food producers” or “food collectors”? o They hunt and gather food o They practice the slash and burn horticulture. o They are both. Western stereotypes on the Guarani Indians:  Government representative though the Guarani were backwards and less evolved because of their hunting and slash and burn horticultural practices.  Following ideas o economic progress and development strategies, they implemented programs of intense agriculture in the region. Reeds text: “Forest Development the Indian way:  How do these ideas of economic progress and development strategies, such as intense agriculture, destroyed the forest environment (in other terms, the resources development depends on)?  Intense agriculture is not well suited for the Amizonial soil.  The soil is not rich enough to be intensively exploited. This practice devastated the soil and created erosion  How are Guarani subsistence strategies very well adapted to
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