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Lecture 6

AR101 October 17(week 6).docx

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Anna K Patton

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October 17 Cotton Preceramic  Another example of a territorial state is the Inka,  Inka not the first territorial state, nor the first centralized society here  Long history of social and political complexity in the Andes • Caral, Cotton Preceramic (almost 6000 years ago) • Many call this the first city in North America Sacred-city • Monumental architecture- pyramids, central plaza, elite structures • Commoner residential areas as well • Grew cotton and maize- traded with coast for anchovies • Development of this and other site like it in the region may be linked to the organization of labour by elites To build ceremonial centre To farm cotton and maize for trade • Many others sites emerge like this over the course of thousands of years Chavín de Huántar  Initial construction 900 BC  Expansion 500 BC  Pilgrimage centre  However, beginning 2900 years ago, the site of Chavin de Huanar was established in the mountains o Very important in the development of social complexity and state- level societies in the Andes o Initial construction- 900 BC and was in used for at least 500 years, possible longer o Chavin is located in a narrow valley in the highlands  Confluence to two rivers (not navigable)  Area used for animal grazing, some agriculture, but could never have supported a large population, yet a large obviously ceremonial structure was built here o The site itself consists of a massive temple complex o Interpreted as a pilgrimage centre (people arriving on foot) o Activities at this place were enormously influential  Becomes the centre of a widespread style of art styles and artifacts representing the spread of religion from this place  As such, some see it as a religious empire  Visitors would arrive and see a massive 11 meter high wall consisting of animal and human faces, many with fangs • Interpreted as shamans in a trance • Then entre the structure itself through a sunken plaza • Some archaeologists argue that priests may have used poring water through caverns underneath main stairway to create roaring sound This is a sensory event, meant to be experienced by individuals, probably in a drug-induced state Hallucinogens grow in the immediate area No evidence for feasting, unlike other ceremonial centres we’ve looked at (PB) Thought is that pilgrimage to C de H was done by individuals, not groups Chavín de Huántar, the Lanzón  Interior of complex was a warren of passageways • Perhaps intentionally designed to create confusion • At the centre is the lanzon carving 4.5 m tall Interpreted as a fanged human deity • Lanzon carving- may be chief god in Chavin pantheon • Site is interpreted as an oracle At the top of the Lanzon carving is a hole, thought is that people could ask questions and the oracle would respond (priest at the top speaking through the sculpture) Could also pour librations through it Chavín Horizon  Chavin really becomes the centre of a vast religious empire after the site is expanded ca. 500 BC • This is when we start to see chavin-style art and architecture throughout the Andean region Staff god • From the coast to the Amazon Inka  The Inka do not arrive on the scene until about 1500 years after the height of Chavin • Many other state-level or near state-level societies that come and go in that time frame • In AD 1200, a small hamlet established at Cusco Tawantinsuyu  Land of four parts  Pachakutiq o earthshaker  But by the Mid-15 century the Inca begin a series of conquests that culminate in the largest empire known in the New World  Pachakutiq the Inka who expanded the empire to its fullest extent within 25 years  This empire incorporated many disparate ethnic/cultural groups. o In over 80 provinces o Called empire Tawantisuyu refers to Four quarters Cusco  Rebuilt in AD1438 by Pachakutiq  Urban zone of palaces, state buildings and temples  Cuzco was the geographic and political centre of the Inca Empire, but also the cosmological centre  Four roads began at the centre of Cuzco and extended out to the empire from here  Really a city of elites o 20k people in central cuzco  City itself composed entirely of palaces, administrative and ceremonial buildings  Commoners and lesser nobles lived in expansive suburbs around this walled, central core o 10s of thousands Inka Elite • There were many palaces within Cuzco because each new sovereign had to build and accumulate new wealth, including a new palace o At death of an Inka, body mummified and laid to rest in palace o Palace staffed by servants and family members whose job it was to manage properties of deceased kings, feed, clothe and care for mummified body of deceased king and chief wife o Inca mummies brought at festivals and ceremonies o Kings were seen as semi-divine, they were the Sun-god’s representative on earth • As each new Inka had to acquire own wealth, spurred conquest of neighbouring territories o As a means of securing control over conquered states, however, sometimes Inca elites married into elites of conquered peoples o used sibling marriage to keep title within small group of families Saqsawaman  Fortress at Cuzco Saqsawaman- a citadel  Above the central urban zone is the main fortress at Cuzco  Defensive, but also many storehoues, here and within central area of Cuzco o Contain food clothing and other wealth belonging to the state Inca control of Empire  Intensified farming of maize  Taxes (labour)  Establishment of provincial centres  Resettlement programs  Control of government storehouses of agricultural surplus were just one of the ways in which the Inka maintained control of their empire  Intensified production of maize- noticable shift to maize under Inka o Inca allowed most families to keep most of their lands once conquered o But farmers also had to work state and temple lands and had to bring produce from state and temple lands to storehouses at provincial centres (taxes)  Taxes administered through Provincial centres  constructed in each conquered state o Resettled conquered peoples in Inca heartland and moved Inca settlers into newly conquered regions.  Encouraged to keep own customs, but had to use Inca language Road and Outpost system  Administrative centres incorporated into road system  Road- good for moving on foot or with pack animals  Allowed for movement of military quickly through empire to put down uprising- key to Inca maintaining control of empire Huánuco Pampa  Administration o State warehouses  Ceremonial central/feasting o Affinity with Empire  Craft Specialization o Beer and cloth production o Aklla  An example of a provincial centre is the city of Huanuco Pampa o Along royal road to Cusco o Small city of 10-15 k people o We know it was an administration centre because of all the storehouses
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