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CL101 - Nov 13, 2012.doc

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Nirmal Dass

Philosophy 500-200BC group called pre-socratics – a group of thinkers who have broken away from the mythic mindset and have discovered the mind they set the stage for science and they are the first scientists they understand diversity, all diversity has an origin that can be related back to one thing one and the many, many are the effects of the cause – element evolution and change, diversity, something happened to the original thing, which in turn cause more effects Thales suggests that the cause of one thing which everything emerges from is water explanation found in human reasoning: life cannot exist without water Pythagoras (philosopher) said we should not look to natural causes to produce natural things, therefore natural things cannot produce natural things and he thinks the cause of everything is numbers, everything is built on numbers, numbers = proportions, things have been arranged harmoniously and proportionally and this is where we get the Pythagorean theorem speculative thinking is pure thought to explain abstract complexity set into motion a way of thinking and something the nature in reality is principle around laws (ie. Natural laws) you can organize things into methods, principles and categories They are like first scientists in that sense with the way they went with it (methodology?) Socrates – first philosopher in that sense -sets the practice of philosophy -had a student: plato who had lecture notes, Socrates never wrote anything -problems with pre-socratics, they come up with Rhetorics, what they teach (art of persuasion) − after they learn that nature has laws, they teach it − rhetoric is a skill, rhetoric is defined as the art of persuasion and winning an argument − if you had the ability to win an argument, good − rhetoric associated with money (people flocking to become rhetoric) – good at convincing people − it leads to wealth because you are wiser, people look up to you − when we see rhetorics as a skill, thus education as gaining skills to translate into a paycheck, it is a problem − it simply means that there is no concept of morality (morality is a human construct, the only thing human beings respect is money, the universal condition of human-beings, everyone wants money – pre-socratic thinking) − Socrates profoundly disagrees − Socrates questioned nature, why does the river flow? Etc and came up that nature has laws that govern them − questioned human laws, what humans need to live by − he becomes the philosopher who questions human beings, how and why or what and what constitutes a human being − the human laws he summarizes as ethics − every human being wants to behave in an ethical way, that they somehow want to be a good human being no matter where they are, it is the ultimate human law, the desire to be good is what drives us − how and what constitutes this goodness? − All human beings are gov
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