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Lecture 4

Greek World Lecture 4.docx

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Alexis Young

Greek World Lecture 4 Polyphemos  Name means “much spoken of” or “famous” or “abounding in songs and legends” or “many tales”  Story based on popular folktale  Cyclops were uncivilized (no laws, agriculture)  Polyphemos violated the laws of Xenia by eating the men 3 Main Qualities of Odysseus 1. Resourcefulness (polytropos) 2. Intelligence (polymetis) trickster 3. Self-control Other Qualities  Endurance (polytlas dios Odysseus)  Great strength and skill with bow  Charisma Women in Odyssey  Penelope, Circle and Calypso (part god): helpers  Penelope: main female character in the Odyssey o A heroine; a trickster; sign of intelligence and cunning; wise; cautious o Epithet echephron; resourceful; loyal to Odysseus  Calypso; beautiful nymph; weaving image; helper  Circle: witch, weaving image, inscrutable; helper (told him about Scylla, Charyblis, and Sirens) What the Poem is About 1. Family values 2. Life is Horrible 3. Triumph of the human spirit Rise of the Polis 1. Polis = city-state; orig. a “place of refuge’ a. Synoecism: “coming to live together” b. Unification of town with its surrounding territory (village) into larger regions such as Attica, with Athens as its seat of government c. Athens and Sparta the most important city states Characteristics of the Polis 1. Autonomus (self-governing) 2. Controlled a territory 3. Fortified w
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