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Lecture 8

Greek World Lecture 8.docx

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Department
Archaeology
Course
AR104
Professor
Alexis Young
Semester
Fall

Description
Greek World Lecture 8 Athens: Road to Democracy  Synoecism: political unification of Attica with Athens as its political centre  Oligarchy = rule by the few  Timocracy = rule by the wealthy  Tyranny = one man rule  Democracy = rule by the people Early Political Structure  Eupatrids “well-born”; offices based on birth  3 chief archons o Archon basileus (king archon; religious function) o Polemarch (chief general) o Eponymous/chief (head of state; gave name to the year)  6 junior archons: the thesmothetes o Court officials  Council of the Areopagus: advised archons and gave approval First Attempt at Tyranny  Cylon (ca. 632)  Backed by father-in-law, the tyrant of Megara  Followers take refuge in temple – massacred  Alcmaeanids were cursed and exiled Legislation of Draco: c. 621 BCE  Draco “dragon/serpent”  Traditional laws set down in writing  Homicide now presided over by state not family  “Draconian” – harsh, written “in blood” Reforms of Solon: c. 594 BCE  Elected eponymous archon  Dept Reforms: shaking off of burdens o Cancelled existing depts. on farms o Prohibition of poor being sold into slavery for dept o Freeing of citizens who had been made slaves Reforms of Solon (eponymous archon) c. 594 BCE  Constitutional Reforms: wealth not birth o Pentecosiomedimi: 500+ bushels; all political offices o Hippies: 300+ bushels; calvary; all but treasurer Know this o Zeugitae: 200+ bushels; hoplites; not treasurer or archon o Thetes: less than 200 bushels; navy/light armed troops; attended assembly; jurors  Timocracy: rule by the wealthy Reforms of Solon: c. 594 BCE  Created the council of 400 o Chosen from the 4 property classes o Prepared agenda for assembly  Assembly open to all citizens o Decided war and peace o Elected archons  Citizens given the right to appeal  Heliaia – new appeal courts o Jurors from all classes  Law reforms: curbed the right of women  Are of the 7 sages of antiquity Political fractions: Mid 6 cent. BCE 1. Men of the Plains (aristocrats; Eupatrides) 2. Men of the Shore (moderates; Alomaeonids) 3. Men from beyond the Hills (democratic/radicals; Peisistratos) Peisistratos (tyrant 546-527 BCE)  First attempt: c. 560 BCE o Acropolis seizure  2 attempt: c. 555 BCE o Megacles’ daughter rd  3 successful attempt: c. 546-527 Peisistratos  Encouraged trade in olive oil and black figure pottery  Began temple of Olympian Zeus (finished by Hadrian 2 cent. BCE)  Reorganized the Panathenaia Festival o Lesser (annual) and Greater (every 4 years)  Brought the festival of Dionysos to Athens o City dionysia  Built a drainage system in Athens  Reorganized the Agora Peisistratos’ Sons  Hippias and Hipparchos (killed) c. 527 BCE  Harmodius and Aristogeiton  Hippias’ Reign of Terror Hippias and Hipparchos  Silver coinage: Athenian Owls  Hippias exiled 510 BCE Creation of Democracy (ca. 508 BCE)  Cleisthenes (Alcmaeonid): principal founder  4 original tribes – 10 new tribes o Divided Attica into 2 areas: city, coast, plain o Subdivided each into 10 trittyes, are from each area Cleisthenes’ Reforms:  Boule council of 500 o 50 members from each tribe; chosen annually by lot th Final
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