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Lecture 9

Greek World Lecture 9.docx

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Alexis Young

Greek World Lecture 9 The Parthenon  Architectural refinements: platform curved like a dome; columns have convex curve and lean inwards to overcome optical illusions  Phidias oversaw sculptural decoration  92 metopes: Lapiths fighting Centaurs; Theseus o Shows greek myths West Pendiment (Parthenon)  Contest between Athena and Poseidon for patronage of the city of Athens  Olive tree vs salt spring  Iris, female messenger god  Drapery accentuates body; wet tee-shirt look East Pendiment  The birth of Athena o Springing from Zeus fully clothed & armed  Dionysus drunk  Interior frieze: 160m long, 1m high  Depicts a Panathenaic procession  Panathenaic procession of the peplos; for cult statue of Athena Polias “guardian of the ciry”  Ephebes: young men between 18-20 underwent military training for 2 years o On horseback  Olympian gods watching the procession: Poseidon, Apollo and Artemis  Roman copy of gold (40-44 talents)/ivory cult statue of Athena  Sculpted by Phidias  12m in height  Helmet with sphinxes and griffins  Oegis with the head of Medusa  In the cella of the temple  Single greatest financial asset of Athens The Erechtheion  421-406 BCE  Ionic temple to Athena Polias “guardian of the city”  Housed wooden cult statue South Porch  Ionic columns 6.5m in height  Hole in the ceiling where Poseidon hurled his trident Temple of Athena Nike  Built in the 420’s BCE  Athena goddess of victory  Small ionic temple  Unusual square cella  Historical Frieze: Greeks vs Persians/Greek o Persian wars and Peloponessian wars  Nike tying her sandal  Clinging transparent drapery typical of High Classical Period Greater Panathenaic Festival  8 days long  Prizes of material value  Prizes: Panathenaic amphora filled with olive oil  Athena on one side  Athletic competition on the other  4 horse chariot race  Winner of 2 horse chariot race won 140 amphoras  1400 made  2 place prizes  Musical contest – singers to the Kithara; could win one of 5 prizes  Athletic pentathlon; relay torch race  Dance contest: nude dancers with shields The Role of Women Family Terms for Final  Athenian household = oikos  Most important goal of family o Produce a legitimate son to inherit family estate Athenian Women  Under the legal control of Kyrios = male guardian o Father, husband, nearest male relative o Responsible for female’s home, upbringing and welfare o Arranged her marriage Mar
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