BI110 Lecture Notes - Lecture 16: Osmosis, Passive Transport

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Associate with membrane surface through non-covalent bonds (ionic and hydrogen bonds) Made up of mixture of polar and nonpolar amino acids. Hydrophobic nature of membranes restricts free movement of many molecules and substances essential for life. Some molecules are able to cross the membrane and some of those can cross very quickly even though it"s hydrophobic. Passive transport: movement of a substance across a membrane without need to expend chemical energy such as atp. Diffusion: net movement of substance from region of higher to lower concentration. Primary mechanism of solute movement within a cell and between cellular compartments separated by a membrane. Rate of diffusion depends on the concentration difference on two sides of membrane, or concentration gradient. Driving force is an increase in entropy. The bigger the gradient, faster the diffusion rate. Simple diffusion: passive transport of substances across lipid portion of membranes with their concentration gradients. Large or charged molecules may be strongly impeded from crossing membranes.

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