BI111 Lecture 14: Evolution II

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Lecture 14
Feb. 3/16
Ancestral and Derived Structures
individuals show evidence of mosaic evolution
Combination of ancestral and derived characters in evolutionary lineage
Derived characters determined from fossils and embryos
Derived characters appear later in development
Outgroup comparison for derived characters
Cladistic Phylogenies Based On...
Principle monophyly
all groups in a clade includes common ancestor and all of its descendants
Principle of Parsimony
simplest explanation most likely to be correct
construct simplest story possible, dont need a complicated story, simplest
story closer to truth
All phylogenetic trees are hypotheses that attempt to accurately reflect
historic events
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Principle of Monophyly
Principle of Parsimony
simplest explanation most likely to be correct
unless other data suggest more complicated explanation
Evolutionary change is an unlikely event
evolution of character twice is extremely unlikely
evolutionary trees with derived characters appearing once are most parsimonious
A phylogenetic tree is a hypothesis
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Convergent evolution and parsimony
unless other data suggests more complicated explanation
despite phenotypic similarities of pitchers most morphological development and
genetic data shows differences between old world and new world pitcher plants
convergent evolution is more parsimonious explanation
Many ways to Depict Phylogenetic Relationships
All equally valid representations
Depends on what data is available
doesn't matter what shape they take on as long as they tell the same story
more info and characters allow better resolution of speciation
Rooted vs. Unrooted, scaled vs unscaled
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