BI111 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Dactyly, Pterosaur, Recapitulation Theory

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4 Feb 2016
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BI111-Lecture 12- Phylogeny/ Plants
Systematics:
Two goals
oReconstruction-
family trees
connecting species together
oClassication of Species
Naming
Taxonomy
Phylogenic Trees
oSuccessive events of speciation
oOne species gives rise to 2 (or more)
Reconstruction
oRequires comparison of traits( in hared genetic ancestry) in
multiple species
Binary Nomenclature:
Genus/ Species
Taxon has 3 components
oName
What group it belongs to
oRank
Where it ts into phylogeny
oContent
Relevant to species concept
Reections of Similarities:
Dolphin, Shark, Ichtyosaur, Whale
oAll have similarities;
same shape, live in water, large dorsal n, wide 0at tale
Traits make them ‘top predators’
Homologies v. Homoplasties:
Homologies
oSimilarity in sequence of a protein or nucleic acid between
organisms of the same or di4erent species.
oResemblance due to recent common ancestor
Homoplasties
oResemblance due to similar selective pressure to ll niche
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