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Chptr 40 BI 111

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Tristan Long

Chapter 40 13-03-03 1:59 PM Micronutrients: any mineral required by an organism in small trace amounts Macronutrients: minerals needed in large amounts. Essential Nutrients: any of the essential amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals required in a plant. Nitrification: a metabolic process in which certain soil bacteria convert ammonia or ammonium ions into nitrites that are then converted by other bacteria into nitrates, a form usable by plants. 40.1 Nutrition: Essential Materials Hydroponics is Way to Study Plant Nutrition: Hydroponics– an experimental method for identifying minerals absorbed into plant tissues that were essential for growth ⋅ Scientist Sachs, measured various amounts of minerals and nutrients in solutions, in which he grew plants. ⋅ By eliminating the elements on at a time, he determined the SIX essential nutrients: i. Nitrogen ii. Calcium iii. Magnesium iv. Phosphorous v. Sulfur ⋅ If you want to determine if a nutrient is essential, you include it in a solution, and then transfer the plant to another solution that contains all nutrients except the one you are testing… what happens? • Normal growth? The nutrient is not essential ⋅ You must remember to supply air bubbles to the roots because it is an essential nutrient. ⋅ Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are the only plant nutrients not considered to be minerals • These nutrients are obtained from the air and water (the others are obtained from the soil, or dissolved in water) ⋅ The amount of essential element adequate for one species may be toxic for another 40.2 Soil soil is a mixture od minerals, organic matter, air and water. Also contains living organisms. Soil is the source of water for most plants, and oxygen for cellular respiration in the root cells. The texture of the soil determines if the root systems have access to sufficient water and dissolved oxygen… sand , silt and clay. The relative proportions of the minerals determine the number and volume of pores (air spaces). Also depends on the number of living organisms.. Humus holds a lot of water and provides a lot of vital nutrients. Horizon A: Top Soil • Most biological activity occurs here and is the most fertile. • Most plant roots are concentr
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