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Lecture 7

CT203 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Cytotoxic T Cell, Phagocytosis, Sepsis


Contemporary Studies
Course Code
James A Le Clair

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Week #4: Title January 28th, 2016
Midterm #1
Written in class
Two test forms
75 Questions
Last Class
Disease Transmission Systems
From Human to Human
oNo intermediate organism required
oTransmission may occur through direct skin-to-skin contact
e.g., fungal infections
oContact with bodily &uids (e.g., STDs)
oThrough the inhalation of aerosols expressed through the sneezing or
From Animal to Human (zoonotic diseases)
oNo intermediate organism required
oTransmission may occur through direct contact (e.g., rabies), or through the
consumption of contaminated animal tissues (e.g., parasites, vCJD)
Through Human-Vehicle (Phomites) Contact
oNo intermediate organism is required, although mechanical transfer may
occur through the actions of insects (e.g., &ies)
oContact with, or consumption of the vehicle facilitates exposure to the
disease agent (e.g., cholera, small pox, salmonellosis, etc.)
From food, water, etc.
This Class
From Human to Human with an Intermediate Host
oAn intermediate organism is required to complete the disease cycle
oThe disease agent spends an important life stage in the intermediate host
prior to re-infecting humans (e.g., snails for schistosomiasis)
Example: Swimmer’s Itch  part of its lifecycle is in a snail
Pathogen  Snail  Pathogen leaves Snail  Pathogen enters
Vectored from Animal to Human or from Human to Human
oAn intermediate organism (e.g., &y, mosquito, &ea) facilitates disease
transmission by spreading the disease agent from an infected individual to a
potential infective
oThis insect spreads the disease
Malaria, The Black Death, Zika, etc.
Spread because of potential human host has come in contact
with the insect
Dr. James LeClair | CT203 Goldie-Anne Weiss | WLU | Winter 2016
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