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Wilfrid Laurier University
Alastair Robertson

Jessica Einwechter GG258 January 10 2013 Malcom Gladwells Iron Law of Canadian Hockeyreading from last day ProcessPhenomenon Kids born in the first few months they are bigger and older All the way through to the point until in Junior Hockey all of the players are born in the first monthsWhat hypothesis did the authors investigate That while this may be true in Junior because there is a strict age cut off in the NHL that should disappearTested this hypothesis by looking at the birth months of NHL playersthe conclusions drawn from this you can see it supports the hypothesis You can trust the Canadian born teams because it would be a bigger sample rather than the OlympicsBefore NHL players were allowed in the Olympics over 50 of the players were born in earlier months until the change What other factors might influence analysissample sizesampling frame western hockey leaguetarget populationwhat kind of sample is thisare there issues associated with thisdo hockey teams do things differently in WHLRestating what weve learnedinitial hypothesisrevised hypothesiswhat would a follow up study be to test the revised hypothesisTypes of Knowledge Traditionalpassed down through generationsembedded in culture Personalbased on anecdotal personal experiencesAuthoritative empiricalobservable and verifiableScientific vs nonscientificKey characteristic of scientific questionsCan we subject it to verifiable observationsScientist must be able to make observations that others can make that answer the question Inside or outside scope of scientific inquiryIs smoking wrong opinions not empirical to studyIs smoking more likely to cause long term health problems observationalAre sibling relationships related to adult sexual preference observationalShould efficiency be valued over morale cant observe Can the question be framed in such a way that observations can be made to answer themHow do we come to know somethingConsult an authority expert articles textbooks videos newspaper articles Where does authority come fromGranted due to knowledgeposition How do we select authoritiesAccess popularity reputation is this constant Is there a new paradigm of collective knowledge generation emerging Not all experts agreeScience as a processScience is a process involving continuous interaction between theory and data1 Jessica EinwechterDrawing inference from information relies on two types of logicLogical reasoning is a principle of science o Inductive datahypothesistheory o Deductive theoryhypothesisdataExample Knowledge Gapswill the public accept changes in packaging or product performancedo immigrants from China have the same access to an English as an Additional Language Program as immigrants from other countriesdoes taking a low dose estrogen birth control pill increase the incidence of reproductive cancerswhat are the consequences of prison terms for juvenile offenders Forms of Reasoning Deductionmoves from the general to the particularstart with theory and apply it to the real worldex evolutionapplies to all speciesex distance decayapplies to rents in all citiesInductionmoves from the particular to the generalstart with the real worldthen develop conceptstheories based on what is observedex evolutionfrom finch morphology to the theory of evolutionex distance decayfrom Chicago land values in the late 1960s to theory of rent distance decay bidrent curvesLook at the Research process diagram First Steps narrow and formulate the research questionselect research designdevelop variablescreate analysis planselect sample Pearsons r look at equation range is 1 to 1 GG258 January 1517 2013 Research Questions and Design Sample StudyLinear Regression Model YBBX01Dependant variableYinterceptSlope coefficientIndependent VariableRandom Error term or residualEmployee satisfaction Y Environmental responsibility X Should be positive correlationThe more environmental responsibility the more employee satisfactionRandom value is the distance from the actual points to the line of best fit Critically Reading ResearchWhat Questions should we ask about this study What was the data What was the sample size Were results statistically significant What was the method of analysis Are there any intervening variables that could be responsible for the relationship2 Jessica Einwechter What is the implied casual relationshipPrinciples of Graphic CommunicationServe a clear purpose Description exploration tabulation Show the data as much as possible not summaries Maximize the data to ink ratio Avoid distorting what the data are saying Encourage the eye to compare different pieces of data Show multiple plots of the same type principle of small multiples Be closely integrated with the statistical and verbal descriptions of a data set Use gray scale and colour sparingly use colour to show differencesPurposes of Research ExploratoryGoal is to generate new ideas Develop tentative theories and conjectures about how processes operate Become familiar with the basic facts people and concerns involvedFormulate questions and refine issues for future research Used when little is known about the research problemDescriptivePresents a profile of a group or describes a process mechanism or relationship Eg describes demographic characteristics economic facts and social factors Can be used to gain an insight into the changing health status of population groups Can be used to describe how multiple ecological processes are occurring in a given landscapeExplanatory Goes beyond simple description to model empirically the phenomena under investigationIt involves testing theory andor elaboration of a theoryUsed mostly in basic researchOrigin of Research Topics Where do research questions come from Who decides what gets researched Structure and state of the scientific discipline Social environmental problems Personal values of the researcher Social premiumsPractical considerations Personal observationsResearch Problems The formulation of a problem is often more essential than its solution Quite general in nature Form of a statement Eg worldwide millions of children die each year from diarrhea Eg some people recycle more than othersEg people smoke despite general scientific agreement that smoking has serious negative health impacts st1 step is to narrow and focus the issues involved in the problem Ordinary issuespecific researchable questionResearch ConceptualizationConceptual modelling Sketch out the components and relationships involved in the problem Why is youth unemployment highWhat are the causes of youth unemployment how are they related to each other Literature review What other research has been done in this area Theoretical frameworks3
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