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2 Europe in 1914.docx

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Alicia Mc Kenzie

Jan 14, 2014 Europe in 1914 Opinions on the War • Everyone takes blame • Germany did it • Capitalists caused it • Domestic (power of European leaders) 1. 2. Russia 7. Great Britain 3. Austria-Hungary 8. Ottoman Empire 4. Italy 5. Germany 6. France RUSSIA Key figs: Christopher Stolypin, Prime Minister (later assassinated) Autocracy –Absolute monarchy Instability - Moscow, st. Petersburg = modernizing o EG. India and China  Large numbers of workers from land to work in cities and factories • No farms to go back to Industrialization = everything great everyone has a job. When there isn’t a market for the goods, then people get thrown out of work. There is no employment insurance. Terrorism becomes a way of life for many in Russia Imperial authorities in provinces find themselves obstructed or assassinated Pan-Slavism - Russia seen as the source of hope for Slavs everywhere (Slavic dignity and independence) o Ottoman empire crumbling late 1800’s 2 o Tension between AH and Russia DOMESTIC SCENE Autocracy and the Modern World - Czar cannot have any doubt of his power, rules with iron fist Agrarian reform - Limits aristocratic power over Russian serfs/peasants Revolution - War threatens to distabalize Russia’s imperial system FOREIGN POLICY Alliance with France Defeat by Japan 1904-1905 - Navy destroyed - Russia political crises as a result; 1905 revolution By 1914 apparent Russian gov’t cannot tolerate any attack against its movements - Want to stop Serbia’s movements Russia stops rivalry with Britain - Unofficial allies with Britain - Britain also has an alliance with Japan, which is ironic o Complicated web of alliance systems The Eastern Question Russians cannot afford to be seen as backing down - Especially after Bosnian crisis AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 3 Constituted of many ethnic groups - National groups want their own nation (tension) - Eats at legitimacy of Hapsburg throne After 1866-1867Austria’s defeat of Hungary Dual Monarchy - Hungary has a lot of power politically @ Budapest and Vienna - Emperor of Austria + Hungary In the EastAH and Russia that can’t back down else it looks like “all is lost” - Russia must protect Slavs Economy - AH economy undeveloped (sense of insecurity to act now, or be overwhelmed) Growth of extreme left and right - Extreme German nationalism (anti-Semitism) o Want to extend German influence and culture  But can’t go too far, else to question legitimacy ofAH empire  Because empire constituted of to nations with separate interests Russia and AH have competing interests in the Bulkans AH navy ( onAdrianic sea) constructed to deter Italy (one of its allies) Without Germany cannot challenge any other major power (Russia) ITALY Divided nation - 1870 final part of Italy (Rome) becomes a sovereign nation state - North vs South (still distinct diff. between N and S today) o Southern Italy less well off o North dominates Italian politics Economic Growth - Italy co
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