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Wilfrid Laurier University
Hugh R Alcock

 Argumentation in Philosophy  Every claim in philosophy must be justified (at least stated to be self-evident)  Argument  Set of premises aimed to support a particular conclusion  Deduction  To say one claim, r, is deduced from some others, p and q, is to say that if we hold p and q to be true, that is, one is rationally obliged to accept, r, as true  Deductive Reasoning:  Ex. 1. all tennis players are well coordinated 2. Martha plays tennis Thus… 3. Martha is well coordinated  Deduction is all or nothing: if premises are true, no choice but to accept conclusion is true  Validity  Argument is valid when its conclusion must follow from its premises  Conclusion of valid argument doesn't have to be true  Ex. 1. Eiffel Tower in either Paris or London 2. Eiffel Tower isn't in London Thus… 3. Eiffel Tower is in Paris  Ex. Valid argument but invalid conclusion:  Eiffel Tower is in London or Beijing  Eiffel Tower isn't in London Thus…  Eiffel Tower is in Beijing  Rationally obliged to believe the conclusion based on the validity of the argument but premise (2) is invalid which results in invalid conclusion  Conclusion validity inferred from premises  Invalid arguments:  Henry is a martian, than he is under 1m tall  Henry isn't a martian Thus…  Henry is over 1m tall  Invalid conclusion: conclusion doesn't follow premises  Common argument varieties:  Argument by deduction  Argument from experience  Argument by analogy  Inference to the best explanation  Argument by Reductio ad Absurdum  Argument by Deduction  Sherlocke Holmes  "M" mark on cyclist's shoes  Violet's shoes have mark Thus…  Violet is a cycl
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