PO102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Oklahoma City Bombing, Baltimore, Bashar Al-Assad

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3 Jul 2017
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Political Protest and Violence: Terrorism
- Violence is a tool in case of terrorism
o It can be exercised by the powerful or the weak
- Citizens experience the violence though they may not have a role
- Hannah Arendt
o Violence unsupported by political will never accomplish political goals
- “udda Huddei used iolee agaist people ad as aked y the U“, Baath Party
and Sunni Muslims so his violence was effective
- Arendt also argued
o Violence is never legitimate
o Can be justifiable to lessens peoples suffering
- Terrorism
o Differs because there is in-discriminant violence against civilians
o Definition debated but when seen people know
o Examples: Israeli Olympics, 1985 Air India, Dec. 21/88, Tokyo 1955 Saran Gas,
Norway 201187 Killed
Hard to define because its used for political uses
Oe persos terrorist is aothers freedo fighter
Very few self-identify, they often identify as something else
If terrorists only method of achieving goals they are under that umbrella
May say e shouldt just fous o the oept of terror ad if that is
the goal
Others say it should depend on method of attack such as bombs
o Example: Oklahoma bombing labelled terrorist, Abortion Shooting seen as
murder but both political message
Deadig ureasoale at gu poit Ja Hauglad logger
Violee iflited upo the is y the outs Baltiore City Nespaper
Killig y stealth ad targetig a defeeless iti i a ay iteded to
ause terror i soiety Prof. Khalid Aou el Fadl (UCLA)
Terrorism: Elements for a definition
- Use of threat of violence as a strategy to achieve certain goals
- Aims to induce fear causing people to alter their behaviour
- Publicity is an essential element
Definition has three components
- The act or threat of violence
- The emotional reaction to the act or threat
- The social effects
- More psychological strategy than war strategy
- Works through fear engendered among civilians
- The more random the more fear
- There is a rise in global terrorism but this rise is in the Middle East and Russia
- 5 countries account for for 80% Syrian, Iraq, Afghanistan, Nigeria, Pakistan
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