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Jan 15 2014.docx

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Melany Banks

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Jan 15 2014 Animal Welfarism cont.  First paper assignment: ­ Posted  Beyond Utilitarianism ­ Under utilitarianism, an action is only ever conditionally wrong  ­ Tom Regan – animals have intrinsic value in virtue of being “subjects­of­a­ life” ­ Kantianism CI2: Act so that you treat humanity... always as an end and never  as a means only  ­ Expand “humanity” to include entities with beliefs and desires, perceptions,  sense of the future, emotional life, feelings of pleasure and pain o Even if animals are treated well, this would not justify using them for  our food  o This is not going to include every kind of animal  Sagoff – Liberation vs Environmentalism ­ Aldo Leopold: Our [moral] community includes soils, waters, plants, animals,  or collectively “the land” ­ Moral obligations to animals can arise in one of two ways  o Based on principle that cruelty to animals is obnoxious  It is the way that the animal is treated is the part that is wrong   Its wrong but only if you are the one causing the suffering   That is what is causing us to be morally outraged  o Humans are obliged to prevent and to relieve animal suffering  however it is caused   More broader and more demanding   Just because you are not physically causing the harm doesn’t  mean that you shouldn’t try to prevent it  ­ Leopold acknowledges the violence inherent in natural systems and this is part  of what ought to be protected  Compare Singer/Animal Liberation Leopold/Land Ethic Must stop of the suffering
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