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PS101 Lecture Notes - Electroconvulsive Therapy, Tricyclic Antidepressant, Tardive Dyskinesia

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Mindi Foster

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PSYCHOLOGY LECTURE November 27,29 2012
- Dec 13th at 7:00pm
- 75 questions worth 25% based on the 8 chapters covered this term plus
appendix A
- 15 questions based on last 3 chapter 14, 15, 16 (5 each)
- Final is worth 38%
Types of therapy
Range from pills to psychodynamic
Some are less popular today
Not mutuality exclusive, some can be combined very effectively (some
Three classes of therapies: Talk, Behaviour, Biology
Biological Treatment (in order)
- Drug treatment
- Electro convulsive shock
- Psychosurgery (last resort) a one way street, can do things to brain but
cannot undo them
Drug Treatment
- Psychoactive drugs have revolutionized the treatment of mental disorder
- The number of people in institutions dropped
- Placebo effect
The apparent success of a treatment that is due to the patients
expectation and hopes rather than to the drug or treatment itself
Meta-analysis (when you have a group of studies and you look at them
altogether) indicate that clinicians considered medication hopeful yet
patient ratings in treatment groups were no greater than patient
ratings in placebo groups
- High relapse and dropout rates
There may be short term success but many patients (50%-66%) stop
taking medication due to side effects
Individuals who take antidepressants without learning to cope with
problems are more likely to relapse
- Dosage problem
Finding the therapeutic window or the amount of medication that is
enough but not too much
Genetic differences

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Drugs may be metabolized differently in:
o Men and women, old and young, and in different ethnic groups
o Groups may differ in tolerable dosages due to variation in
metabolic rates, amount of body fat, number of type of drug
receptors in the brain, smoking and eating habits
- Long-term risks
Antipsychotic drugs can be dangerous, even fatal if taken for many
o Tardive dyskinesia
Antidepressants are assumed to be safe but no long term studies have
been conducted
Many doctors and the public overlook the possibility if long-term
dangers when a drug shows short run benefits
- Ease of use
Over prescription 200 million a year
Little harm
Cost effective
Drug treatments
o Do not cure the disorder
o Do not teach client coping & problem solving skills to deal with
o Can bring symptoms under control & other therapeutic
o Techniques can be incorporated
FIGURE 17,18
Antipsychotic Drugs
- Many block or reduce sensitivity of brain receptors that respond to
- Some increase evels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter that inhibits dopamine
- Can relieve positive symptoms
Antidepressant Drugs
- Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)
Elevate norepinephrine and serotonin in brain by blocking an enzyme
that deactivates these neurotransmitters
- Tricyclic antidepressants
Boost norepinephrine and serotonin in brain by preventing normal
reuptake of theses substances
- Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
(e.g Prozac)
Problem for Drug therapy
- Time course of action
- Changes in brain have to change learned responses
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