PS102 NOTES.docx

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Published on 21 Apr 2013
School
WLU
Department
Psychology
Course
PS102
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Chapter 7 1/8/2013 5:49:00 PM
Lecture 1:
Learning
what is learning?
process by which experience produces a relatively enduring change in
behaviour of capabilities (knowing how)
how do we learn?
initially guided by 2 perspectives:
1. behaviourism
2. ethology
Behaviourism
focused on how organisms learn
examined processes by which experience influences behaviour
discovered laws of learning that apply to virtually all organisms
looks at how humans and animals learn
believe that there are laws of learning that can describe learning for all
creatures
treated organism as tabula rasa
explained learning society in terms of directly observable events
avoided unobservable mental states
Behaviourism and Learning
Respondent (classical or Pavlovian)
Operant (Skinnerian or instrumental)
Respondent Conditioning
based on internal response to naturally occurring stimuli
ex. reaction to the taste of lemon, warm weather or sun causes us to be
relaxed
some things we encounter in the world naturally elicit a response in us
when we pair things that don‟t have a value, or have a different value
with thee naturally occurring pairings, the new item will come take on the
new meaning
Language of Respondent Conditioning
four terms
UCS/US- Unconditioned stimulus
stimulus that elicits a reflexive or innate, unconditioned response (UCR)
without prior learning
UCR/UR- Unconditioned response
reflexive or innate response elicited by the UCS without prior learning
CS- Conditioned stimulus
stimulus that through association with the UCS comes to elicit a
conditional response similar to the original UCR
CR- Conditioned response
response elicited by a conditioned stimulus
infant natural response example: first born babies tasting sugar
(unconditioned stimulus) that evokes a response (happy, smiling)
Animal Conditioned Response
Can you make something that is neutral or relatively meaningless become
meaningful?
ex, tuning fork and pair it with a steak for a dog.
as soon as the dog hears the „ping‟ of the tuning fork he knows the steak
is coming, therefore the tuning fork is now valuable and revokes the
response of salivating
the dog is now conditioned
Pavlov
studied salivary responses in dogs
natural response- no learning involved
noted dogs salivated at sounds (e.g. footsteps;tone)
Types of CS-UCS pairing:
forward short-delay
CS (tone) still present when food (UCS) presented
optimal learning
forward trace
CS appears and the bell goes off
best if delay is no more than 2-3 seconds
simultaneous
presented at same time
learning it slower
backward
presented afterward
little learning
conditioned stimulus should serve as a cue, BEFORE you present the
following
Factors that enhance acquisition
multiple CS-UCS pairings
intense, aversive UCS can produce one trial learning
forward (short-delay) pairing
time interval between onset of CS and onset of UCS is short
Lecture 2
Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery
Extinction

Document Summary

Process by which experience produces a relatively enduring change in behaviour of capabilities (knowing how) How do we learn? initially guided by 2 perspectives: behaviourism, ethology. Examined processes by which experience influences behaviour. Discovered laws of learning that apply to virtually all organisms looks at how humans and animals learn. Believe that there are laws of learning that can describe learning for all creatures. Explained learning society in terms of directly observable events. Based on internal response to naturally occurring stimuli. Ex. reaction to the taste of lemon, warm weather or sun causes us to be relaxed. Some things we encounter in the world naturally elicit a response in us. When we pair things that don t have a value, or have a different value with thee naturally occurring pairings, the new item will come take on the new meaning. Stimulus that elicits a reflexive or innate, unconditioned response (ucr) without prior learning.