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Lecture 6

PS102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Synaptic Pruning, Preterm Birth, Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

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Joanne Lee

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PS 102 - Lecture notes:
Negative impacts prenatal:
- Environmental influences
- Teratogens
- Environmental agents that may cause abnormal fetal development
- Alcohol, aspirin, caffeine, cocaine, heroin, marijuana, and nicotine
- Maternal malnutrition
- Miscarriage, premature birth, stillbirth, impaired brain development
- Maternal stress (stress hormones)
- Premature birth, infant irritability, attentional deficits
The newborn:
- Comes equipped to survive and learn
- Hear, smell, taste, touch, see (somewhat)
- Communicates
What can the newborn do?
- Can discriminate different speech sounds
- Can acquire classically conditioned responses
- Can do simple observational learning
- Imitate adult facial expressions
Brain development:
- Synapses - point where information is transmitted between two neurons. During
development, more connections are made between neurons than are needed
- Synaptic pruning - the loss of unnecessary connections between two neurons, a
common event during development
Physical development:
- Maturation
- Biologically programmed
- Cephalocaudal principle
- Development proceeds from heat to foot
- Head is large - growth proceeds towards lower body
- Proximal Distal principle
- Development proceeds from innermost to outer
- Arms before fingers
Motor development:
- Reflexes
- Innate behaviours
- Newborn babies will grasp anything placed in their hand
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