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Approaches to Treatment and Therapy.docx

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Lawrence Murphy

Approaches to Treatment and Therapy (Chapter 16) Biological Treatments  Contemporary view alternates between mental disorders as diseases (mental treatment) & emotional problems (psychological treatment)  Drug treatments on the rise with growing recognition of biological and genetic components to disorders o Medications that alter the production of or response to neurotransmitters in the brain Antipsychoitc Drugs (Neuroleptics)  Drugs used primarily in the treatment of schizophrenia & other psychotic disorders  Most designed to clock or reduce the sensitivity of brain receptors that respond to dopamine  Reduce agitation, delusions, and hallucinations  Side effects such as muscular rigidity, tremors, and involuntary muscle movement (tardive dyskinesia) Antidepressant Drugs  Drugs used primarily in the treatment of mood disorders, especially depression & anxiety  Produce unpleasant physical reactions  Three Classes o Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) o Tricyclic antidepressants o Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) Tranquilizers & Lithium  Anti-anxiety drugs (Tranquilizers) o Drugs commonly but often inappropriately prescribed for patients who complain of unhappiness, anxiety or worry o Useful as short-term treatment of panic disorder o Increase activity of GABA  Lithium carbonate o Drug frequently given to people suffering from bipolar disorder (moderates norepinephrine and stops overstimulation from glutamate) Cautions/ Limitations about Drug Treatments 1. The placebo effect  The apparent success of a medication or treatment due to the patient’s expectations or hope rather than to the drug itself 2. High relapse and dropout rates  Must take the drop-out rate into consideration as well 3. Dosage problems  Therapeutic window; The amount that is enough but not too much 4. Disregard for effect, possibly better, nonmedical treatments 5. Unknown long-term risks 6. Untested off-label uses  Drugs are sometimes prescribed for conditions outside their intended use Direct Brain Intervention  Psychosurgery o Any surgical procedure that destroys selected areas of the brain believed to be involved in emotional disorders or violent, impulsive behaviour (eg. prefrontal lobotomy)  Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) o A procedure used in cases of prolonged and severe major depression, in which a brief brain seizure is induced o Newer alternatives like transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) used for milder stimulation Kinds of Psychology  Psychodynamic therapy (insight therapy) o Relied on Freud’s method of psychoanalysis & traditionally involved free association o Evolved into many psychodynamic or “depth therapies”  Major element is transference: process where client transfers unconscious emotions or reactions (eg. feelings about parents) onto the therapist  Behavioural therapy o Therapy that applies principles of classical and operant conditioning to help people change self-defeating problematic behaviours
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