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Lecture

PS101 Chapter 14

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Department
Psychology
Course
PS101
Professor
Mindi Foster
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 14 Personality Throughout time people have been intuitively aware of individual differences Personality will predict who we get along with and who we like Historical knowledge of individual differences  Theophrastus wrote about different “characters” to try to describe individual differences  Attempting to characterize people- their personality Definition of personality  Distinctive and relatively enduring ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that characterize a person’s response to situation  Comes from the would persona- actors mask How do we measure personality?  Ask them? Ask others? Results of a test? Observe them? Personality assessment Interviews  Structured set of standardized questions  Note other behaviours-appearance, speech, patterns, etc. Drawbacks  Characteristics of interviewer can affect answers  Dependence on co-operations, honesty of interviewee Behavioural assessment  Need explicit coding system  Aim is not solely to “describe” behaviour -Specific behaviour, frequency, specific situations, under what conditions  Inter-judge reliability -High level of agreement among observers Personality scales  Objective measures -Use standard questions and agreed upon scoring key Advantage  Collect large amount of data Disadvantage  Validity of answers  Validity of scales Personality scale traits Trait Theories  Based on theoretical conception of trait  Concern- have to identify what are the underlying traits that describe people States versus Trait Traits- The Big Issues  Identifying the number of traits  Are they stable over time, and situation?  Are they the product of genetics? Answers by Trait Theorists  Number of traits measured varies by test  Are the stable? Somewhat, sometimes  Some genetic component, some environmental Differences across people come from within the person Trait Theories  Cattell was first 16 traits with opposing labels- “Happy-go-lucky” versus “sober”  Cattell gave way to more modern tests which has fewer traits Trait Based personality assessment: Modern test  NEO-PI-R -Big five personality  Extraversion, neuroticism, openness to experience, agreeableness, conscientiousness Eysenck, had the fewest traits- 2  Introversion/extraversion and neuroticism/ stability The big modern Personality Assessment  Empirical devised tests: -Hierarchically arranged -Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory -Items were answered differently by differing groups-> based on responses by “normal” and psychiatric patients Some Behavioral Background  Environment impacts on y
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