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Christopher Anderson

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Phobias=classical conditioning Learning=relatively durable change in behaviour or knowledge that is due to experience Conditioning=specific kind of learning, involves learning associations between events that occur in an organism’s environment Psychic reflexes=conditioned reflexes Neutral stimulus=did not originally produce the response Learning associations=building blocks of entire learning process Functional perspective=conditioning must be evolutionary adaptive, contributing to our reproductive fitness Elicited=reflexes=drawn forth Trial=consists of any presentation of a stimulus or pair of stimuli; to form an association that can occur quite rapidly, sometimes in just one pairing of CS and UCS Immunosuppression; allergic reactions; drug toleranceclassical conditioning Acquisition of CR depends on stimulus contiguity (stimuli occur together in time and space) Renewal effect=extinction suppresses a conditioned response rather than erasing a learned association; extinction does not appear to lead to unlearning -stimulus generalization quantified in graphs called generalization gradients Thorndike: Operant Conditioning=instrumental learning (instrumental in obtaining some desired outcome) Law of effect=if a response in the presence of a stimulus leads to satisfying effects, the association between the stimulus and the response in strengthened; successful responses gradually “stamped in” by their favourable effects Reinforcement=occurs when an event following a response increases an organism’s tendency to make that response Responses voluntary=emitted (to send forth) vs. elicited (classical conditioning) Reinforcement contingencies=the circumstances of rules that
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