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PS102 Chapter 9 Intelligence.docx

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Eileen Wood

Intelligence Milgrim Study: foot in the door Intelligence: An individual’s “ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning and to overcome obstacles by taking thought Intelligence as a Capacity Capacity - To learn - For transfer? - For abstract thinking? - For judgment? (Good or bad ones) - For comprehension? (math, reading etc) - All or the above? What does intelligence look like? - Spearman - Thurstone - Guilford - Cattell - Gardner - Sternberg - Ising Spearman -General intelligence: the g (general underlying skill) factor - Specific abilities- s factors (specific subset of skills for that particular task) Thurstone - 7 primary mental abilities  Verbal comprehension (receptive skill)  Numerical ability  Spatial relations  Perceptual speed  Word fluency  Memory  Reasoning o Hierarchical o Primary abilities can be subsumed under g? Guilford Structure of intellect - Multiple abilities 150 (on a cube) - No need for ‘g’ - Operations, content, product (which gives you a score) - We don’t use this Cattell -g = fluid (more biological/inherit contribution) + crystallized intelligence (what you were taught) Fluid- reasoning, memory, speed of information processing Crystallized- ability to apply acquired knowledge/ skills when problem solving Gardner’s Forms of Intelligence - Linguistic - Logical/ Mathematical - Spatial - Bodily kinesthetic - Musical - Personal (Inter- and Intra- personal) Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence Componential - 3 substructures - Metcomponents - Performance - Knowledge acquisition (ability to perform) Experiential - Novelty (how you deal with novelty_ - Familiarity Contextual - Culture Today we still use fluid g factor crystallization and Sternberg Psychometric Approach - Measure and assess intelligence - Based on the bell curve or normal distribution About IQ Test - Average usually set at 100 - SD is usually set at 15 - Comparison group is the rest of the population Requirements for Good Test - Reliable - Valid - Standardized Reliability - Ability of a test to yield nearly the same score each time a person takes the test or an alternative of the test (reliable friend, alarm clock, weigh scale) Validity - Ability of a test to measure what it is intended to measure Standardization - establishing norms for comparing the score of people who will t
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