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PS101 Chapter 4-6 Practice Questions.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PS102
Professor
Jim Mc Cutcheon
Semester
Winter

Description
Why is the presence of a semipermeable membrane essential for a neuron to fire? (1 point) Because the semipermeable membrane is responsible for receiving chemical messages from other neurons. Because the openings on the membrane allow differently charged ions to flow in and out of the neuron. Because only a semipermeable membrane will support the hydrophilic environment that is needed for a neuron to survive. Because myelin cannot cling to a non-permeable membrane. Immediate, life-saving reflexes occur so rapidly because they do not involve all parts of (1 point) the nervous system. Which of the following, specifically, is not included in this type of reflexive action? A motor neuron The brain An interneuron A sensory neuron What is the primary difference between neurotransmitters and hormones? (1 point) Neurotransmitters stimulate activities, while hormones inhibit activities. Hormones stimulate activities, while neurotransmitters inhibit activities. Hormones are released directly into the bloodstream, while neurotransmitters are kept between neurons. Neurotransmitters are released directly into the bloodstream, while hormones are kept between neurons. Lesioning studies are often used to study the relative function of specific brain parts. (1 point) Why would destroying a brain structure be used as a method for studying its function? Because it allows us to see what sorts of reparative techniques will be most effective for dealing with the human brain. Because the lesioning of an area allows us to see what skills disappear. Because the lesioning of one area shows us how other areas are handicapped by that loss. Because it is not possible to study function, but rather only loss of function in a human brain. When people refer to themselves as being ―right-brained‖ or ―left-brained,‖ they are (1 point) generally making a mistake. Why is that? Because the right and left sides of the brain are always in communication, and thus work collaboratively. Because there are, in fact, no ―right‖ and ―left‖ sides of the brain. The brain is divided into the anterior (front) and posterior (back) hemispheres. Because all of our analytical and processing skills are handled in the hindbrain, and the right and left hemispheres are parts of the forebrain. Because there are no skills that are truly handled by one side of the brain or the other. Xzasia has been suffering from severe bouts of depression for the past several years. (1 point) Her doctor suggests that some medications designed to impact a specific neurotransmitter might be helpful for her. Which neurotransmitter would be the most likely target of this medication? GABA Serotonin Acetylcholine Dopamine Young Keith was in a very bad accident in which specific parts of his brain were (1 point) damaged. His neurologists noted that over the course of the next several months, other parts of his brain began to compensate for these deficits, and he was not as impaired as they had expected. Keith’s case demonstrates the concept of _______________. dendritic pruning genesis adaptivity plasticity Cathy suffers from a brain disease that causes her to have tremors, an unsteady walk, (1 point) dizziness, and slurred speech, among other symptoms. Which part of her brain is probably affected by this illness? Her cerebellum Her hypothalamus Her amygdala Her thalamus 1) The _________ nervous system consists of nerves that are connected to sensory receptors and to the skeletal muscles that permit voluntary actions. (1 point) autonomic sympathetic parasympathetic somatic Score: 0 2) Which of the following is not part of the peripheral nervous system? (1 point) the spinal cord the autonomic nervous system the skeletal muscles the skeletal nervous system Score: 1 3) The _________ nervous system is to expending energy as the _________ nervous system is to storing energy. (1 point) parasympathetic; sympathetic sympathetic; parasympathetic autonomic; somatic somatic; autonomic Score: 1 4) The _____ act as the receivers of the neuron. (1 point) dendrites myelin sheaths axons cell bodies Score: 0 5) Where does the transmission of a nerve impulse from one nerve cell to another occur? (1 point) at the synapse at the dendrites at the nerves at the cell body Score: 0 6) Endorphins are similar in structure and function to ______________. (1 point) depressants stimulants hallucinogens opiates Score: 0 7) Researchers using the ________ brain scanning technique have found that a brain area involved in processing visual patterns is also (1 point)en a person merely imagines the stimulus. TMS EEG MRI PET Score: 0 8) The ________ is a method for analyzing biochemical activity in the brain that tracks a glucose-like substance, which contains a radioactive element.(1 point) functional MRI MRI EEG PET scan Score: 1 9) The __________ and the __________ are two structures in the brainstem. (1 point) hypothalamus; cerebellum reticular activating system; hypothalamus pons; medulla cerebellum; medulla Score: 1 10) The part of the brain most responsible for higher mental functions is the (1 point) limbic system. cerebral cortex. cerebellum. thalamus. Score: 0 11) Reflexes above the neck, such as sneezing and blinking, involve the _____________, and reflexes below the neck, such as pulling a hand away (1 point) from a hot stove, involve the _____________. lower part of the brain; spinal cord sensory nerves; lower part of the brain cranial nerves; precursor cells spinal cord; cranial nerves Score: 1 12) The pons is to ____________ as the medulla is to ____________. (1 point) breathing; sleeping and waking sleeping and waking; heart rate dreaming; cortical arousal hormone production; sleeping and dreaming Score: 1 13) A brief change in electrical voltage that occurs when a neuron is stimulated and serves to produce an electrical impulse is (1 point) an absolute threshold. an excitatory impulse. an action potential. a synapse. Score: 0 14) Which of the following is false regarding the hemispheres of the brain? (1 point) The right half of the brain controls the left side of the body. When looking straight ahead, everything in the left side of the scene goes to the left half of the brain. The left half of the brain controls the right side of the body. When looking straight ahead, everything in the right side of the scene goes to the left half of the brain. Score: 1 15) When Myers and Sperry severed the corpus callosum in cats, they found that (1 point) the two hemispheres were no longer able to communicate. abnormal eating behaviours occurred because the cats could not regulate hunger. the left side of the cat's body was not affected by this operation. disorganized electrical activity spread from one hemisphere to the other. Score: 1 16) _______________ is to the pituitary gland as _______________ is to the pineal gland. (1 point) Adrenal hormones; melatonin Melatonin; oxytocin Androgens; estrogens Oxytocin; melatonin Score: 0 17) _____________ refers to the ability of our brains to adapt to new experiences and offers an explanation as to why people with brain damage (1 point) sometimes have amazing recoveries. Neurogenesis Synapsis Plasticity Myelination Score: 0 18) All of the following are functions of the parasympathetic nervous system activation except which one? (1 point) It inhibits glucose release by liver. It activates digestion. It accelerates heartbeat. It stimulates tear glands. Score: 0 19) Which statement is false about the amygdala? (1 point) It plays a role in influencing depression and anxiety. It regulates temperature and sleep. It is involved in the arousal and regulation of emotion. It contributes to the initial decision to approach or withdraw from a person or situation. Score: 1 20) Stem cells are (1 point) extending fibres of neurons that transmit messages to other neurons. insulating cells that may surround the axon of a neuron. a bundle of nerve fibres in the peripheral nervous system. immature cells that are capable of developing into any type of cell. Score: 0 21) Susan is walking home from work and stops in at her local coffee shop. As she orders, she notices a man at a table smiling at her. She has seen this (1 point) man before and secretly has a crush on him. Immediately, she blushes and her heart starts to beat faster and her palms get sweaty. Susan's reaction to seeing this man involve the _______________ nervous system. parasympathetic hormonal somatic autonomic Score: 1 22) Jenna has been diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, which means that she will experience progressive breakdown of the myelin sheath surrounding (1 point) her neurons. All of the following are consequences of the loss of myelin sheath except which one? weakness or paralysis loss of sensation and lack of coordination ulcers vision problems Score: 1 23) Raj has been taking an experimental medication that affects his serotonin level. He is likely to experience a change in all of the (1 point) following except which one? sleep mood memory appetite Score: 1 24) Kevin has electrodes attached to his scalp that translate the electrical energy from his brain. Researchers record Kevin’s brain's electrical pa(1 point) known as microelectrodes. transcranial magnetic stimulation. lesion movement. brain waves. Score: 1 25) Dr. Banetti is utilizing the EEG to study brain activity. The major problem with this technique is that it (1 point) is not very accurate since it is not selective enough—it records many cells’ activities. requires the researcher to insert electrodes into the brain. requires the researcher to lesion or remove sections of the brain. cannot be used to link brain activity to specific events or mental processes. Score: 0 26) An elderly man has had a stroke and has experienced brain damage to his thalamus. His brain will now have trouble with (1 point) determining the emotional importance of sensory information. survival drives such as hunger, thirst, sex, and reproduction. relaying sensory inputs to appropriate cortical regions. integrating information between the left and right hemispheres. Score: 0 27) People with frontal lobe damage may experience all of the following except (1 point) difficulty making correct judgments in social situations. difficulty when engaging in short-term memory tasks. difficulty with voluntary muscle movement. difficulty with visual processing Score: 0 28) Stephanie has superior mathematical ability thanks to all but which one of the following? (1 point) the right side of the brain the medulla the left frontal lobe the left side of the brain Score: 0 29) If a person has been in a car accident and has experienced damage to the medulla, what will be the most likely result? (1 point) blindness memory loss deafness death Score: 0 30) Dr. Konstanza has been looking for anatomical differences between the brains of women and men. After conducting several autopsies, she is most (1 point) likely to find that men's brains have a greater density of neurons in the right hemisphere. women's brains have a greater density of neurons in the cortical area that processes sounds. men's brains have a greater density of neurons in the cortical area that processes auditory information. women's brains have a greater density of neurons in the right hemisphere. Score: 0 31) A functional magnetic resonance imaging technique can capture brain changes (1 point) by using brain probes to observe the functional changes that occur in each region. by translating electrical energy from the brain into wavy lines on paper. through the use of microelectrodes that are so fine they can be inserted into single cells. repeatedly and quickly as people engage in various activities like singing or reading. Score: 1 32) Which of the following issues would neuroethicists be less apt to focus on in their research? (1 point) the use of brain scans in a legal context the moral implications of cognitive enhancement through natural or artificial chemicals brain growth and synapse formation during early childhood the possibility of using brain scans to try to determine what an individual is privately thinking or feeling Score: 0 33) Are brain differences linked to behaviour? (1 point) It is uncertain; we do not know yet which, if any, of the findings are important for how men and women perform and function in everyday life. Yes, studies have definitely shown that brain differences explain how men and women perform and function in everyday life. Yes, but brain differences are not linked to stereotypes we hold about men and women. No, research has not given us any evidence that brain differences can explain behaviour. Score: 0 34) When evaluating the relative contributions of the left and right cerebral hemisphere, most split-brain researchers (such as Michael Gazzaniga and (1 point) Roger Sperry) would agree that in normal brains, the left and right hemispheres are "complementary." the mental skills of the right hemisphere are superior to those of the left hemisphere. the mental skills of the left hemisphere are superior to those of the right hemisphere. in normal brains, the left and right hemispheres are constantly engaged in a struggle for dominance. Score: 0 35) Which of the following statements is true? (1 point) It has been proposed that the sense of a unified self occurs because a verbal module in the brain is constantly coming up with theories to explain the actions, moods, and thoughts of the other modules. The brain consists of independent brain parts that deal with different aspects of thought and perception, constantly conferring with each other and revising their "drafts of reality." The mind–brain puzzle that plagued philosophers for thousands of years has been solved through modern technology's study of the neural circuits responsible for our sense of self. The sense of self has been located in the most central area of the brain, sometimes referred to as the ―ancient brain.‖ Score: 0 36) When the two cerebral hemispheres are out of touch, ___________ and ___________ are affected. 1) The _________ nervous system consists of nerves that are connected to sensory receptors and to the skeletal muscles that permit voluntary actions. (1 point) parasympathetic sympathetic somatic autonomic Score: 0 2) Which of the following is not part of the peripheral nervous system? (1 point) the skeletal nervous system the skeletal muscles the autonomic nervous system the spinal cord Score: 1 3) The _________ nervous system is to expending energy as the _________ nervous system is to storing energy. (1 point) autonomic; somatic parasympathetic; sympathetic sympathetic; parasympathetic somatic; autonomic Score: 1 4) The _____ act as the receivers of the neuron. (1 point) axons dendrites cell bodies myelin sheaths Score: 0 5) Where does the transmission of a nerve impulse from one nerve cell to another occur? (1 point) at the nerves at the synapse at the dendrites at the cell body Score: 1 6) Endorphins are similar in structure and function to ______________. (1 point) depressants opiates hallucinogens stimulants Score: 0 7) Researchers using the ________ brain scanning technique have found that a brain area involved in processing visual patterns is also act(1 point)a person merely imagines the stimulus. PET EEG TMS MRI Score: 1 8) The ________ is a method for analyzing biochemical activity in the brain that tracks a glucose-like substance, which contains a radioactive element.(1 point) MRI PET scan EEG functional MRI Score: 1 9) The __________ and the __________ are two structures in the brainstem. (1 point) reticular activating system; hypothalamus hypothalamus; cerebellum cerebellum; medulla pons; medulla Score: 1 10) The part of the brain most responsible for higher mental functions is the (1 point) thalamus. cerebral cortex. cerebellum. limbic system. Score: 0 11) Which of the following is false regarding the hemispheres of the brain? (1 point) When looking straight ahead, everything in the right side of the scene goes to the left half of the brain. When looking straight ahead, everything in the left side of the scene goes to the left half of the brain. The left half of the brain controls the right side of the body. The right half of the brain controls the left side of the body. Score: 1 12) Stem cells are (1 point) extending fibres of neurons that transmit messages to other neurons. a bundle of nerve fibres in the peripheral nervous system. immature cells that are capable of developing into any type of cell. insulating cells that may surround the axon of a neuron. Score: 0 13) When Myers and Sperry severed the corpus callosum in cats, they found that (1 point) the left side of the cat's body was not affected by this operation. the two hemispheres were no longer able to communicate. abnormal eating behaviours occurred because the cats could not regulate hunger. disorganized electrical activity spread from one hemisphere to the other. Score: 1 14) The pons is to ____________ as the medulla is to ____________. (1 point) breathing; sleeping and waking dreaming; cortical arousal hormone production; sleeping and dreaming sleeping and waking; heart rate Score: 1 15) Which brain structure is responsible for directing incoming signals to the correct pathways? (1 point) the limbic system the hypothalamus the thalamus the cerebellum Score: 0 16) _____________ refers to the ability of our brains to adapt to new experiences and offers an explanation as to why people with brain damage (1 point) sometimes have amazing recoveries. Synapsis Myelination Plasticity Neurogenesis Score: 0 17) A brief change in electrical voltage that occurs when a neuron is stimulated and serves to produce an electrical impulse is (1 point) an excitatory impulse. a synapse. an absolute threshold. an action potential. Score: 0 18) _______________ is to the pituitary gland as _______________ is to the pineal gland. (1 point) Androgens; estrogens Adrenal hormones; melatonin Melatonin; oxytocin Oxytocin; melatonin Score: 0 19) Which statement is false about the amygdala? (1 point) It plays a role in influencing depression and anxiety. It contributes to the initial decision to approach or withdraw from a person or situation. It regulates temperature and sleep. It is involved in the arousal and regulation of emotion. Score: 1 20) Reflexes above the neck, such as sneezing and blinking, involve the _____________, and reflexes below the neck, such as pulling a hand away (1 point) from a hot stove, involve the _____________. sensory nerves; lower part of the brain lower part of the brain; spinal cord cranial nerves; precursor cells spinal cord; cranial nerves Score: 1 21) Susan is walking home from work and stops in at her local coffee shop. As she orders, she notices a man at a table smiling at her. She has seen this (1 point) man before and secretly has a crush on him. Immediately, she blushes and her heart starts to beat faster and her palms get sweaty. Susan's reaction to seeing this man involve the _______________ nervous system. somatic hormonal autonomic parasympathetic Score: 1 22) Jenna has been diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, which means that she will experience progressive breakdown of the myelin sheath surrounding (1 point) her neurons. All of the following are consequences of the loss of myelin sheath except which one? vision problems weakness or paralysis loss of sensation and lack of coordination ulcers Score: 1 23) Raj has been taking an experimental medication that affects his serotonin level. He is likely to experience a change in all of the (1 point) following except which one? mood appetite sleep memory Score: 1 24) Kevin has electrodes attached to his scalp that translate the electrical energy from his brain. Researchers record Kevin’s brain's electrical patter(1 point) known as microelectrodes. brain waves. transcranial magnetic stimulation. lesion movement. Score: 1 25) Dr. Banetti is utilizing the EEG to study brain activity. The major problem with this technique is that it (1 point) cannot be used to link brain activity to specific events or mental processes. is not very accurate since it is not selective enough—it records many cells’ activities. requires the researcher to lesion or remove sections of the brain. requires the researcher to insert electrodes into the brain. Score: 0 26) An elderly man has had a stroke and has experienced brain damage to his thalamus. His brain will now have trouble with (1 point) integrating information between the left and right hemispheres. survival drives such as hunger, thirst, sex, and reproduction. relaying sensory inputs to appropriate cortical regions. determining the emotional importance of sensory information. Score: 0 27) People with frontal lobe damage may experience all of the following except (1 point) difficulty making correct judgments in social situations. difficulty when engaging in short-term memory tasks. difficulty with voluntary muscle movement. difficulty with visual processing Score: 0 28) Stephanie has superior mathematical ability thanks to all but which one of the following? (1 point) the right side of the brain the medulla the left frontal lobe the left side of the brain Score: 0 29) If a person has been in a car accident and has experienced damage to the medulla, what will be the most likely result? (1 point) deafness blindness memory loss death Score: 0 30) Dr. Konstanza has been looking for anatomical differences between the brains of women and men. After conducting several autopsies, she is most (1 point) likely to find that women's brains have a greater density of neurons in the right hemisphere. men's brains have a greater density of neurons in the right hemisphere. women's brains have a greater density of neurons in the cortical area that processes sounds. men's brains have a greater density of neurons in the cortical area that processes auditory information. Score: 0 31) The cases of H. M. and Phineas Gage contributed to knowledge about the functions of the _____________ and the ___________, respectively. (1 point) amygdala; frontal lobes hippocampus; frontal lobes temporal lobes; parietal lobes hypothalamus; temporal lobes Score: 0 32) When evaluating the relative contributions of the left and right cerebral hemisphere, most split-brain researchers (such as Michael Gazzaniga and (1 point) Roger Sperry) would agree that the mental skills of the left hemisphere are superior to those of the right hemisphere. in normal brains, the left and right hemispheres are "complementary." the mental skills of the right hemisphere are superior to those of the left hemisphere. in normal brains, the left and right hemispheres are constantly engaged in a struggle for dominance. Score: 1 33) When the two cerebral hemispheres are out of touch, ___________ and ___________ are affected. (1 point) intelligence; memory personality; language personality; intelligence perception; memory Score: 1 34) Are brain differences linked to behaviour? (1 point) It is uncertain; we do not know yet which, if any, of the findings are important for how men and women perform and function in everyday life. No, research has not given us any evidence that brain differences can explain behaviour. Yes, studies have definitely shown that brain differences explain how men and women perform and function in everyday life. Yes, but brain differences are not linked to stereotypes we hold about men and women. Score: 0 35) A functional magnetic resonance imaging technique can capture brain changes (1 point) repeatedly and quickly as people engage in various activities like singing or reading. by using brain probes to observe the functional changes that occur in each region. through the use of microelectrodes that are so fine they can be inserted into single cells. by translating electrical energy from the brain into wavy lines on paper. CHAPTER 5 1) ________________ is a periodic, more or less regular, fluctuation in a biological system, whereas a ________________ is a biological fluctuation (1 point) that is about 24 hours from peak to peak. Biological rhythm; circadian rhythm Endogenous rhythm; circadian rhythm Conscious rhythm; biological rhythm Circadian rhythm; biological rhythm Score: 0 Answers: Biological rhythm; circadian rhythm 2) The hormone _______________ helps to keep the biological clock in phase with the light–dark cycle, where the levels increase in the dark and (1 point) decrease when it becomes light outside. melatonin serotonin oxytocin cortisol Score: 1 Answers: melatonin 3) Which treatment appears to help patients who have been diagnosed with seasonal affective disorder? (1 point) exposure to bright fluorescent lights exposure to low levels of negative ions both (a) and (b) none of the above Score: 0 Answers: exposure to bright fluorescent lights 4) Which of the following is true regarding the relationship between gender, mood, and the menstrual cycle? (1 point) No relation exists between stage of menstrual cycle and emotional symptoms. There is a relationship between stage of the menstrual cycle and work efficiency and memory. In the workplace, premenstrual women report more stress compared to men and postmenstrual women. Women and men differ significantly in the emotional symptoms they report and the number of mood swings they experience. Score: 1 Answers: No relation exists between stage of menstrual cycle and emotional symptoms. 5) The brain emits occasional short bursts of rapid, high-peaking waves called sleep spindles during (1 point) stage 3 sleep. stage 1 sleep. REM sleep. stage 2 sleep. Score: 0 Answers: stage 2 sleep. 6) When do people typically reach REM sleep? (1 point) 100 to 120 minutes after the onset of sleep 50 to 60 minutes after the onset of sleep 70 to 90 minutes after the onset of sleep 30 to 50 minutes after the onset of sleep Score: 1 Answers: 70 to 90 minutes after the onset of sleep 7) ________________ of all North Americans get fewer hours of sleep than they need (1 point) one-tenth two-thirds one-half one-third Score: 1 Answers: two-thirds 8) Sigmund Freud proposed that dreams (1 point) are the result of brain activity. reflect unconscious wishes. reflect current concerns. are a by-product of cognitive restructuring. Score: 1 Answers: reflect unconscious wishes. 9) Which drug is sometimes classified as a mild psychedelic? (1 point) peyote morphine marijuana methamphetamine hydrochloride Score: 0 Answers: marijuana 10) The use of _____________ can lead to tolerance. (1 point) heroin ecstasy alcohol amphetamines Score: 1 Answers: heroin 11) The cause of ______________ may involve the degeneration of certain neurons in the hypothalamus, and genetic factors seem to be involved. (1 point) sleep apnea narcolepsy insomnia chronic snoring Score: 0 Answers: narcolepsy 12) Freud argued that dreams contained both consciously experienced aspects of dreams called __________ content and a hidden level of symbolism (1 point) called __________ content that reflected unconscious wishes and desires. lucid; expressive latent; manifest expressive; lucid manifest; latent Score: 0 Answers: manifest; latent 13) Young children's dreams tend to be more ________ than adult dreams because of cognitive limitations. (1 point) story-like dynamic scary bland Score: 0 Answers: bland 14) According to ________________ dream theory, there is no purpose of dreaming. (1 point) psychoanalytical activation–synthesis
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