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Lecture

cognitive week 1 lecture 2.odt

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Department
Psychology
Course
PS260
Professor
Roger Buehler
Semester
Fall

Description
Culture is the man made part of the environment 1)Material culture – physical artifact we produce (ex machines) 2)Subjective culture – unquestioned assumptions, standard operating procedures – how we understand what proper behaviour is, how we behave in relation to other people or objects Identifying culture -Cultural ideas are shared -Often correspond to a particular language (dialect), time period, and geographic region -Subcultures can emerge from shared characteristics EX. Gender, occupation Cultural Syndromes -Shared elements of subjective culture organized around a theme 1) cultural complexity – the specification of roles within a culture (EX. Hunter/gathers society) 2) tightness – the degree to which there is strong norms or expectations for behaviours, violations of those expectations usually has a sanction (EX. Yelling in class=judge by class) 3) vertical and horizontal cultures – (vertical) Difference in status between people is expected and it will be the position you stay in (horizontal) leads towards the idea of equal opportunity 4) individualism and collectivism – in a individualistic society people prioritize there own personal needs while in a collectivism people with prioritize as a group (can be compared to west and east parts of world) Individualists -attend to social groups less -more proud of personal accomplishments -Define status by accomplishments rather than relationships or affiliations -are competitive because your status makes you want to be better than other people to gain a higher status -are not as concerned about cooperation and smooth social interaction -believe in autonomy and self-reliance, where you have to make your own way in the world and become self reliant which is not seen in collectivism society as much Common sense criticism 1) common wisdom is unclear, ambiguous, contradictory ( EX. more cooks makes mess disproves that 2 heads is always better than one) 2) Common wisdom is often inaccurate or incomplete -EX. Fundamental attribution error: the tendency to overestimate personality as a cause of others behaviour and to underestimate the power of the situation Hindsight bias:
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