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Lecture 5

Lecture 5 Notes (Marijuana)

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Department
Psychology
Course
PS268
Professor
Bruce Mc Kay
Semester
Winter

Description
Lecture 14, 15, and 16 – Marijuana I, II and III 2/7/2013 3:54:00 PM  Pot around for 5000 years, criminalized for last 90  2 bil in tax revenue in cali if taxed  bigger than mining and logging in bc Cannabis sativa  Originated in Asia  Originally grown for fibres,  From which hemp rope is made  Grows like a weed in US and CDA  Up to 18 ft high  Hybridized with c.indica to yied canibis sativa indica, which has thc (can get 2 lbs off of one plant) Cannabis indica  Grown for its psychoactive resins delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)  A compact plant 2-3 ft  Potency (amt of thc) varies depending on plant genetics and environmental conditions Where is the THC In The Cannabis Plant?  THC is concentrated in resin, most of which is flowering tops o Less in leaves o Little in stocks  There are 66 (close to 100) compounds unique to cannabis, many of which ,ay be psychoactive  Med companies trying to isolate and patent Cannabis Preparations  Traditional (ceremonial) preparations in India correspond roughly to types available in Canada o Charas – hashish o Ganja – known as sinsemilla  “without seeds” o Bhang – leaves and stalks (<1% THC) Growing Pot (outdoors) 101  Plant seeds  Germination  Seedling growth – 16 hrs a day  Vegetative growth - grows  Key Requirements: o Light (change photoperiod from 16 to 12 hours a light per day to get to vegetative state) o Water o Temp. o Nutrients o Etc. (same as tomato)  Later steps (1-4 months) o Flowering stage (new adjusted photoperiod) o Reproductive stage  Key Requirements: o Must remove male plants (feminized)  Last Steps o Harvest o Dry and cure o partake o (5-15% THC) (found 40% ish THC in plants in BC) Growing Pot (Indoors) 101  Latest developments: o “autoflowering” strains  no need to adjust photoperiod  small (stealthy) plants  low yield  mature in 7-13 weeks A few extra steps for a purer product  Hash o The trichomes that have fallen on the large leaves leaves are washed, mechanically separated via sieves, and pressed into shape (up to 20% THC)  Hash Oil o Trichomes(and leaves, stalk) are ground and mixed with ethanol (tincture), THC is extracted, and ethanol is evaporated (up to 60%+ THC) How do THEY know there‟s a grow-op in the house?  What the neighbours are told to look out for  (from the Waterloo Regional Police Services website) o Residents only attend homes occasionally for short periods o Exterior appearance of the property is untidy o Entry is often made through the garage to conceal activities o Trash bags containing used soil and plant material o Windows are covered to conceal activities o Bright light can be seen escaping from windows; heavy condensation present o Electricity meters show signs of tampering o Sounds of construction and ventilation fans may be heard o Growing marijuana produces a strong skunk-like odour that may be detected outside  can have TOXIC MOULDS  FLIR (Forward-Looking Infra-Red) system o Detects the infrared signatures of high heat sources (e.g., grow lights) o Hand-held or helicopter mounted o Detection is minimized by reducing thermal emissions: o thermal paints used on the outside and inside of buildings o mylar tarps, or tarp-backed survival blankets, covering everything  Infrared remote sensing o Spectral reflectance  shine a light on a surface, and measure the characteristics of the light that reflects back to you  spectral reflectance characteristics of marijuana are somewhat similar to trees to ground cover species  spectral reflectance characteristics of marijuana are not constant across all plants (therefore no “standard” or “calibration point”)  doesn’t really work, marijuana reflects really differently  more of a scare tactic  usually a snitch What is in the Smoke?  Same other than nicotine  Water pipes o Premise  Burning and filtration - After burning compounds dissolve in water (hopefully in toxins) and some do not (hopefully the psychoactive compounds) – how does a bong work? o Health „benefits‟  Water filtration traps some THC but most passes through  Water traps a percentage of some carcinogens (but not all) – the “carcinogenic potential” of the water is much higher than the vapour  Large body of research shows that smoking tobacco through a water pipe substantially reduces cancer risk o BUT…  depending on the design… tinfoil or metal filters /screens may be used resulting in heavy metal consumption Vapourizers  Premise o Heating – THC can be liberated (turned to a gas) from the plant material at a lower temperature than the toxins  Health „benefits‟ o Because theres no burning there is no exposure to combustion products o Significant reduction in respiratory symptoms (cough, chest tightness, etc) in long term vapourizer users compared to smokers  BUT… o depending on the design… tinfoil or metal filters /screens may be used resulting in heavy metal consumption How is Vapourization different?  Vaporization occurs at a much lower temperature, so no combustion takes place Smoking marijuana  Who‟s smoking, and what are the acute and chronic behavioural, physiological and neurobiological effects What are the acute psychological and behavioural effects of marijuana?  Effects are complex – stimulant, depressant, mild hallucinogen  Slows down time  State dependent 2/7/2013 3:54:00 PM Chapter 15 – Marijuana - 3 species exist o Sativa – originated in Asia, used for hemp rope etc.  Was just found a year ago – religious etc. uses of it documented  Hemp industry; fibres used for rope  Up to 18 feet high  Has been hybridized with indica; produces THC  Can get upwards of 2 POUNDS from one plant o Indica – grown for its psychoactive resins and is cultivated in many areas of the world (usually only one meter high)  2-3 feet high o Ruderalis – primarily in Russia and not at all in NA - Plants of different species that grow under the same conditions produce different amounts of psychoactive material; potency varies from year to year (depending on conditions) o Genetics and environmental conditions determine potency - THC is concentrated in the resin of the plant; most is in the flowering tops, less in the leaves and little in the stalks o There are 66 compounds unique to cannabis, many of which may be psychoactive (medically relevant, though) o THC is just the most notorious one - Charas/Hashish = most potent, basically purified - Ganja/ Sinsemilla (without seeds) = male plants that are taken from the fields before they put their energy into seed production (7-12% THC) - Bhang = crappy weed (<1%) - To separate resin from the plant, the plants are boiled in alcohol then the solids filtered out and the liquid evaporated down into a thick, dark substance (hash oil) - Use of cannabis goes as far back as the 3 millennium BCE - “dope fiend” myth was discredited because many middle class teens were using It recreationally without becoming fiends; law was criticized for making criminals out of white middle class youth - LED lights and hydroponics have contributed to greater amounts of THC in cannabis and its Supply and Trafficking - one of the core problems with weed, was that organized crime groups were using their profits from weed to put towards greater crimes; i.e. the trafficking of harder drugs (MDMA from Canada to the US) - Most drugs coming into Canada arrived at YYZ - Afghanistan has become one of the top hash producers in the world (1500 and 3500 metric tonnes) - Pakistan = one of the primary transit routes to Canada Prevalence - Significantly higher among males than females in Canada - Most widely consumed illicit drug in the world o Amphetamines are second Absorption, Distribution and Elimination - Goes to the brain first and then is redistributed to the rest of the body; within 30 minutes, the weed leaves the brain - Psychological and cardiovascular effects come on at the same time, peaking at about 5-10 minutes into the high - Complete elimination of the THC takes about 2-3 weeks - ANANDAMIDE = endogenous o Also plays a role in normal sperm function - Takes a long time for the effects to take place, making THC an unlikely candidate for abuse Growing Pot (outdoors); could grow anywhere – yields pot with about 5-15% THC *you must get consent from Health Canada to produce marijuana for medical reasons; is the only organization that can legally provide the seeds 1. 2-5 months - Plant - Germinate - Seedling growth - Vegetative Growth 2. Key Requirements - Light (proper photo period) o Needs about 16 hours a day as a seedling o Once it needs to flower, drop it to 12 hours a day - Water - Temperature - Nutrients 3. Later steps (1-4 months) - Flowering stage - Reproductive stage - Must remove male plants; or else you will get a much less concentrated plant 4. Last steps - Harvest (is an annual, can’t grow again) - Dry and cure - Partake, haha Growing Pot (indoors) - Mature in 7-13 weeks, low yield - Perhaps about an ounce per plant Hash (20% THC) - Scrape off trichomes that have fallen on the large leaves - Mechanically separated and pressed into shape Hash Oil (60% THC) - Trichomes are ground and mixed with ethanol, THC is extracted (via the ethanol) and ethanol is evaporated - Can jack up the concentration to pretty much anything you want, depending on your skills How do the police know you have a grow op? - Short visits - Untidy property - Garage/backdoor entries - Trash bags with plant material - Bright lights can be seen escaping from windows - Skunk-like odour - Windows always concealed - Tampered with electrical meters - CAUSES MOULDS; grows behind drywall; thick black mould that is horrible for children - Bare roof - Infrared Remote Sensing o Spectral Reflectance; shine a light ona surface, and measure the characteristics of the light that reflects back to you o Spectral reflectance characteristics of marijuana are somewhat similar to trees to ground cover species o Spectral reflectance characteristics of MJ are not constant across all plants – no standard to be mindful o More to instill fear - BY FAR THE #1 REASON = someone “snitches” Smoke that shit - Basically no important difference in what is in tobacco smoke and cannabis smoke (uh ohhhhh) - Cancer preventing agents in marijuana smoke, rather than tar Water Pipes - Burning and filtration – after burning, some compounds dissolve in water (hopefully the toxins) and some do not (hopefully the psychoactive compounds) - Benefits o water filtration traps THC, but most passes through o water traps a percentage of some carcinogens (but not all) – the “carcinogenic potential” of the water is much higher than the vapour o a large body of research shows that smoking tobacco through a water pipe substantially reduces cancer risk o BUT depending on the design, tinfoil or metal filters/screens may be used resulting in heavy metal consumption – use brass Vapourizers - HEATING – THC can be liberated (turned to gas) from the plant material at a lower temperature than the toxins - BENEFITS o Because there is no burning, there is no exposure to combustion products o Significant reduction in respiratory symptoms (cough/chest tightness) in long term vape users opposed to smokers o BUT depending on the design, tinfoil or metal filters/screens may be used resulting in heavy metal consumption SMOKE THAT SHIT Who’s doing it? - A lot of people; about 50% of Canadians have smoked it at least once in their lives o 8-10% grade 12s every day o Peak age for TRYING IT FOR THE FIRST TIME is 16 o If you make it 24-25 years old without doing any drugs, it’s likely that you never will o Typical WLU students smokes marijuana about 40 times a year o About a third of WLU students do it once per month (has been for 4 years) o People who started drinking earliest are s
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