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Lecture 3

Lecture 3 Alcohol.doc

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Bruce Mc Kay

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Lecture 3, January 24, 13 Alcohol I, II, III Alcohol • Most popular, and frequently used drug consumed recreationally, high school and university History: • Drinking started by making beer like substance • In prehistoric cultures, alcohol was produced by honey left out in the sun, used as a preservative, to preserve magic mushrooms • Wasn’t until climate change that they realized they could drink the preservative • Until medical students in medical school to distill alcohol • By the mid 1800’s, Americans drank more alcohol than any other beverage (including water) o Average about 5 drinks per day • Small groups of people decided they didn’t need alcohol in society, prohibition • 1800’s: temperance movement (ex. Women’s Christina temperance union) o Women of the night o Went around destroying alcohol • 1864: Dunkin Act – any county may forbid the sale of alcohol by majority vote • 1898: Federal referendum – 51.3% in favor of prohibition (note Quebec: 18.9% in favor); Prime Minister Wilfrid Laurier does NOT introduce the referendum as a federal bill • 1900-1948: Prohibition in P.E.I • 1916-1924: Prohibition in Alberta, Sask. (proved unenforceable) • 1916-1927: Prohibition in Ontario (at end created LCBO) • 1919-1919: Prohibition in Quebec, only couple of days, French Catholics Why did Prohibition End? • Organized crime was making a huge amount of money, and the government wasn’t • Supply and demand • No evidence that consumption decreased, but more extreme measures to make it which lead even to death • War on drugs during the 1920’s • Approach taken in the 20’s failed How much Tax does the government collect on alcohol • Slide stats How much Alcohol is the really? • Slide • Per month: o 1 case of beer o A little less than a 26 ox of hard liquor o About 1 bottle of wine Three Basic Categories of Alcoholic beverages • Beer o Approximately 4.5 percent alcohol • Wine o Approximately 12-14 percent alcohol • Distilled spirits (liquor o Approx 40-50 percent alcohol Making win Fermentation • Fermentation: a biological process by which sugars such as glucose are converted by yeast to ethanol and carbon dioxide • Organic material with sugar content o Honey, grapes, berries, molasses, rye, apples, corn, sugar cane, rice, dandelions, etc) + Yeast • Ethanol alcohol _ carbon dioxide (max 12* to 14%) Making Liquor Distillation Distillation: a physical process by which chemicals are separated on the basis of differences in their boiling points. In the process of making liquor, fermented liquids are boiled and then cooled to produce higher alcohol content. • Slide on process • You can’t drink pure lab ethanol, its toxic with benzene in it Alcohol Content = Proof • Old British army custom: o Poor a solution of alcohol and water on gunpowder o If solution < 50% alcohol, gunpowder cannot be ignited o If solution > 50% alcohol, gunpowder will ignite  This is 100% ‘proof’ that the solution is at least 50% alcohol o Proof = 2x alcohol concentration o 190 proof = 95% alcohol Russian vodka Where do Canadians Rank in the World Drinking? • France first, Canada very far down on the list because of how it is spaced out • Alcohol consumption varies substantially from person to person • 20% of the population drinks 80% of the alcohol • No such thing as an average drinker • Real numbers: o 7.8 liters per year per person o Therefore 78 liters per year per 10 people • 14,16,15 drinks a week for the average male, female 12 drinks a week on health Canada, a 26oz a week is okay When is it considered binge drinking? • Two definitions o 1. The 5/4 criterion  5 drinks or more in a row for men  4 drinks or more in a row for women o Or. An extended bout of drinking or other substance use (often lasting at least two days) in which the person neglects other activities in order to engage in this behaviour o Problem with the number: body weight, tolerance, circumstances of drinking, and the outcomes, you can be large and not be affected, outcomes are always more important than the amount When you drink alcohol, what percent of the time do you consume at least 4 (female) or 5(male) drink
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