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Todd Ferretti

September 25, 2012 PS 366 Long Term and Short Term Memory and Language  Working Memory and Language Processing o Predictions  Longer dependencies between words in text should be more difficult to maintain in working memory  Complex sentences should be more difficult than simpler sentences o Daneman and Carpenter  Those with a longer reading span have better correct pronoun referent responses  Those with less than 5 did worse the more sentences there were between referent noun and pronoun  Subject and Object Relative Clauses o Embedded relative clauses hard to comprehend  Subject relative (least difficult)  Less reasoning time for each word  Object relative (more difficult)  Initial noun-verb-noun pattern is subject-object-verb  Initial noun is object of the relative clause; and the subject of the main verb  Long-Term Memory and Language o Word recognition involves accessing semantic representation of word in LTM o Long term memory used to understand language  Relationship between Semantic and Episodic Memory o Semantic  What is an apple  Image  Organized knowledge of words, concepts, symbols and objects  Experts can group or chuck pieces into larger units in working memory when units are meaningful o Episodic  Instances involving apples  Personal experiences  Ex. K.C  Episodic memory impaired  Semantic memory fine  Couldn’t formulate future o Autonoetic consciousness  Déjà vu  Central Issues in Language Processing o Serial processing  Group of processes takes place one at a time o Parallel processing  Group of processes that is simultaneous  Parallel distributed processing  Massively parallel  Process word and letter level simultaneously  Vast network of nodes influencing and being influenced by a large number adjacent nodes o Top-down processing  Information at the higher levels may influence processing at lower levels  One’s expectations  Often parallel o Bottom-up processing  Proceeds from the lowest level to the highest  No influence o Automatic  Do not require extensive capacity  Biological o Controlled  Draw substantially from the limited pool of resources  Modularity o Degree of independence of the language processing system o Unique set of abilities that cannot be reduced to general principles of cognition o  Exemplar Approaches o Abstracted concepts related within the instances  Schemas o Schema: general knowledge structures used for understanding  Capture one’s knowledge about the world  Generalized knowledge structure  Encode info of different situations  Doesn’t just consist of facts, but also how they are related  Used in comprehension  Have default values  When info is not provided we infer information  Slots contain restrictions about what info can fill them o Advantages  Help to understand and remember things  Events connected  Generate expectations  Help understand future events  Associative Networks and Sematic Memory o General properties of associative networks  Connections among info in LTM is our memory  Ideas rep’s as nodes connected by links  Start at node and travel through connections until information is found o General properties of Nodes  Response threshold  Once met, node then sends activation outward to other nodes o Can accumulate o Similar to neurons  Spreading Activation  Spreads from node to node through links  Collins and Quillian: Intersection Search o
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