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Wilfrid Laurier University
Todd Ferretti

September 20, 2012 PS 366 Grammar  Transformational Grammar: Chomsky o Deep structure  Underlying structure that conveys the meaning of sentences o Surface structure  Arrangement of constituents in a sentence that influences the order in which words are pronounced o Transformational rules  Apply to deep structure result in s structure o 2 step process to sentence derivation  Phrase-structure rules generate deep structure  Transformational rules are applied to deep structure to generate surface o Need for 2 levels of rep in grammar  Deep structure ambiguity  On s structure derived from 2 distinct s structures  Pair of sentences have distincty surface structure, but same deep structure   Case Grammar/ Lexical-functional Grammar o What semantic role is being played by word, construct sentence meaning based on these roles o Underlying semantic relationship o Lexical and semantic knowledge associated with verb subcategorization frames  Verb-subcategorization Frames o Info about different syntactic structures associated with verb  Verbs representation actives information o Info about conceptual roles played by noun in relation to event described by verb o Chase  Syntactic argument: subject/object (grammatical roles)  Thematic/conceptual” agent/ patient o Arrangement in surface structure  The dog chased the cat  The cat was chased by the dog  Thematic Roles o Agent: Instigator of an action o Patient: entity that was influences by the event o Recipient: person receiving something o Location: where an object is placed, or where event occurs o Source: where something is coming from o Goal: where something is moving to o Instrument: thing used in causing the event  Thematic Role Representation o Traditional Perspective  Role content limited to syntactically relevant features that are conceptually primitive dimensions or sets of general features  Animacy  Cause  Control  Change of state  Thematic Roles as Verb-Specific Concepts o Detailed world knowledge about the set of things a person has experienced filling role o Salient features of roles are general sometimes  Shared by many words o Some may be specific  Shared by fewer words  Thematic Role Representation o Experiences with specific events are stored in memory  Verb’s word form  Event knowledge from semantic memory  Emerging representation gives knowledge of participants o On-line activation  Available immediately Information Processing System  Working memory o The temporary storage of information that is being processed in any range of cognitive tasks  Memory for brief exposure to letters o Whole report  5 letters are usually recalled  Do you only see 5 or do you forget as you are reporting? o Partial report  Recall letters from different layers  3-4 letters recalled  Records sensory experiences automatically  We have large info capacity  Rapid fading sensory store  Iconic- visual sensory  Echoic- auditory  Different Approaches to Short-Term Memory o Modal Model- traditional  Location where info stored  Learning is transferring info fro
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