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Lecture 4

RE321 Lecture 4: RE321 Lesson 4 Gandhi's Mid-Life and the Emergence of His Political Thought, (1) Swaraj

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Religion & Culture
Alexander Damm

RE321 Lesson 4: Gandhis MidLife and the Emergence of His Political Thought, (1): Swaraj Introduction 1909 Gandhi turned 40 years old and so reached the heart of midlife Still lived in South Africa Developed extensions of his religious views into the spheres of politics and society which would become some of his defining principles 1909 Gandhis book Hind Swaraj or Indian Self Rule Gandhi developed his three principles of swaraj, satyagraha, and sarvodaya in South Africa when faced with modernity and colonialism, and discrimination against Indians there Indian Nationalism and Swaraj Before Gandhi (ca. 18601909) Gandhi wasnt the first Indian to use the term swaraj = political independence Indian nationalists campaigned for Indias political independence from Great Britain = swaraj was their goal Indian National Congress or Congress founded in 1885 by British Civil Servant in India named Allan Octavian Hume o In favour of Indian independence o Always envisioned independent India as a British dominion (like Canada is today) Different nationalists had different visions of swaraj G.K. Gokhale: advocated peaceful protests against British rule using petitions Others in Congress advocated more direct forms of action, such as strikes and boycotts of British goods Others, outside of Congress (i.e. V.D. Savarkar) advocated far more radial methods of protest, including terrorist acts and assassinations Gandhis Experiences in South Africa (18931914): Roots of a New Definition of Swaraj Gandhis understanding of swaraj is quite different than it was for most Indian nationalists Need to understand how Gandhi came to it Roots are in the British colonies that later became South Africa (Natal, Transvaal, Cape, and Orange Free State) Judith Brown readings Gandhi developed two frustrations with the South African society in which he lived: British colonialism and modern civilizationmodernity 1. Colonialism
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