SY321 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Theoretical Ecology, Social Forces, Mixteca Region

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27 Jan 2013
The Quebecois:
-conquest is a second form of internal colonialism which is the forcible capture of land and the economic and
political domination of its inhabitants
-the English conquered New France and created a system of ethnic stratification and turned out to be a major
source of political conflict
-British recognized that imposing their ways on the former French colony could result in high levels of resistant and
-thus, they tried to accommodate farmers and Catholic clergy by reinforcing their rights and privileges
-thought this would win the allegiance of the 2 groups
-but they undermined the rights and privileges of merchants engaged mainly in fur trade
-thus while agriculture, religion, and politics remained in province of France, British took over all large-
scale commerce
-although by 1950s many Quebecois became part of the “new middle class” the upper reaches of the stratification
system remained populated by people of British origin
-social separation reinforced economic segregation
-social relations b/w the 2 can be seen in book called Two Solitudes
-Quebec in middle of 20th century had undeveloped government services
-health, education, and welfare controlled by the Catholic church
-government intervention in economic matters was almost unknown
-thus, members of Quebec’s new middle class and blue-collar workers campaigned to modernize the
provincial political system
-known as the Quiet Revolution
-modernization of the Quebec state failed to resolve 4 issues:
1. The potential demographic decline of the Quebecois
-the Quebecois were giving birth to fewer children than those of other provinces
2. The assimilation of immigrants into English culture
-most new immigrants preferred to have their children educated in English-language schools
3. Persistent ethnic stratification
-management positions in the private sector remained the preserve of English-origin Canadians
4. The continued use of English as the language of private industry
-English remained primary language b/c the largest and technologically most advanced businesses were
controlled by English Canadians and Americans
-thus many Quebecois felt that the survival and prosperity of their community required active state intervention in
non-francophone institutions
African Canadians:
-a third form of internal colonialism is slavery which is the ownership and control of people
-Black slaves were bought and sold in Canada up to at least the 1820s
-became illegal in Canada in 1833 and abolished in the US 30 years later
-wasn’t as widespread as in the US and Canada also served as the terminus for the underground railway
-however, after the American Civil War, the practice of encouraging black settlement in Canada was reversed
-government required rejection of most immigration applications by black people
-reflected prejudice by Canadian population
-relations b/w African Canadians and white Europeans were anything but intimate and based on equality
-African Canadians tended to do unskilled labour and were residentially and socially segregated
-ex. Community of Africville in Halifax
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